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## Pakistan

Asia's great underachiever. Democracy has yet to take hold and now the country is under attack from terrorists.Pakistan has four main geographical regions. First, in the far north is the Hindu Kush ...

## Turing, Alan Mathison (1912–54) Reference library

### The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,752 words

...index number of the Turing machine it is investigating and, second, the input which is going to be fed to the target machine. T then outputs 1 or 0 depending on whether the target machine halts or not. That is, T(n,m) = 1 if Turing machine number n halts with input m and T(n,m) = 0 otherwise. Now, it can be easily shown that there is a Turing machine, call this one S, which generates an output of 1 when given input 0, and which responds to an input of 1 by simply filling its tape endlessly with 1s (that is, S fails to halt if it gets input (1). It can also...

## Wallis, John (1616–1703) Reference library

### The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,351 words

...parabolas ( p 3 = l 2 d and p 4 = l 3 d ). Despite its merits this work was overshadowed by the other early work, Arithmetica infinitorum ( 1655 ), which was the result of his introduction to Cavalieri's infinitesimal methods in his reading of Torricelli's Opera geometrica ( 1644 ). His aim was to find a quadrature of the circle, which he proposed to solve by finding the area of one quadrant of a circle of unit radius, thus finding the value of π/4. Wallis's task, then, was essentially to integrate (1 – x 2 ) 1/2 between x = 0 and x = 1. To begin...

## Schultz, Johann (1739–1805) Reference library

### The Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century German Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,617 words

...reinen Vernunft , 2 vols (Königsberg, 1789/92; repr., Brussels, 1968). Other Relevant Works Betrachtungen über den leeren Raum (Königsberg, 1758). De geometria acustica seu solius auditus ope exercenda (Königsberg, 1775). De geometria acustica nec non de ratione 0:0 seu basi calculi differentialis (Königsberg, 1787). Elementa theologiae popularis theoreticae (Königsberg, 1787). Versuch einer genauen Theorie des Unendlichen (Königsberg, 1788). ‘Review of Immanuel Kant, Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft (Riga, 1786; 2nd edn 1787)’, ...

### Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,884 words

...University Press, 1967. Kinsella, N. Stephan . “Against Intellectual Property.” Journal of Libertarian Studies 15, no. 2 (2001): 1–53. Lessig, Lawrence . Code: Version 2.0 . New York: Basic Books, 2006. Liang, Lawrence , Atrayee Mazmdar , and Mayur Suresh . “Copyright/Copyleft: Myths about Copyright,” 1 February 2005. http://www.countercurrents.org/hr-suresh010205.htm . Locke, John . Two Treatises of Government . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Palmer, Tom G. “Are Patents and Copyrights Morally Justified? The Philosophy...

## Craft Reference library

### Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,446 words

...Anthology of European & American Writings, 1750–1940 . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2000. Includes pieces sometimes omitted from collections on craft. Gauntlett, David . Making Is Connecting: The Social Meaning of Creativity: From DIY and Knitting to YouTube and Web 2.0 . Cambridge, U.K.: Polity, 2011. Greenhalgh, Peter , ed. The Persistence of Craft: The Applied Arts Today . London: A. & C. Black, 2002. The introduction gives a good overview of the studio crafts at the turn of the millennium. Halper, Vicki and Diane Douglas , eds. Choosing...

## Chinese Aesthetics Reference library

### Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
8,778 words
Illustration(s):
1

...different art forms and his integration of “high” artistic values into “low” genres remain, for most readers, an unsurpassable summa. chinese aesthetics . Wang Fu, Remembering Ni Zan's “Wutong Tree and Bamboo by a Thatched Pavillion” (1408), hanging scroll, ink on paper, 104.0 × 30.2 cm; Art Museum, Princeton University (Gift of Professor Wen Fong, class of 1951, and Mrs. Fong, in honor of John B. Elliot, class of 1951). (Photograph copyright 1998 by the Trustees of Princeton University; used by permission.) Commentaries on novels, attentive to technique and...

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