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Pakistan

Pakistan  

Asia's great underachiever. Democracy has yet to take hold and now the country is under attack from terrorists.Pakistan has four main geographical regions. First, in the far north is the Hindu Kush ...
Recording and playback devices

Recording and playback devices   Reference library

Arthur W.J.G. Ord-Hume, Jerome F. Weber, Jerome F. Weber, Jerome F. Weber, John Borwick, Anne Beetem Acker, D.E.L. Shorter, John Borwick, John Borwick, Anne Beetem Acker, and John Borwick

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
16,541 words
Illustration(s):
7

...is a serious increase in background noise. The most common tip shape is hemispherical, and the optimum tip radius is 0.065 mm for 78 r.p.m. records, 0.025 mm for mono LP records, and 0.0125 mm for stereo records. Although they are more difficult to manufacture, and therefore relatively expensive, elliptical-tipped diamond styluses are usually fitted in more complex record players. The preferred major and minor axis radii are 0.018 mm and 0.0075 mm respectively. The stylus must be precisely mounted in the cartridge so that the major axis sits across the...

Bassoon

Bassoon   Reference library

William Waterhouse and James B. Kopp

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
17,276 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a maximum gouge thickness of 0.55 mm, scraped even thinner on the inside near the tip. Such a thin gouge results in harder, denser material at the reed’s tip, which is the region of primary cyclic vibration. But a corpus of surviving bassoon reeds from the late 18th and early 19th centuries, subjected to detailed measurement and analysis by White (1985), gives a significantly different impression: the thinnest of the 28 bassoon reeds have a maximum gouge of 0.90–0.95 mm, and most others have a maximum gouge ranging between 1.0 and 1.8 mm. Willent-Bordogni...

Weill, Kurt

Weill, Kurt (2 March 1900)   Reference library

bruce d. mcclung

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,777 words

...‘The Ballad of Mack the Knife,’” Journal of Popular Music Studies , ix/2 (2007), 157–78 B.D. Mcclung : Lady in the Dark: Biography of a Musical (New York, 2007) S. Whitfield : Kurt Weill: the ‘Composer as Dramatist’ in American Musical Theatre Production (diss., U. of London, 2010) Kurt Weill Foundation, 〈 http://www.kwf.org 〉 Kurt-Weill-Gesellschaft, 〈 http://www.kurt-weill-gesellschaft.de/pages_d/kwg_1_0_0_0.html 〉 Kurt-Weill-Centre, 〈 http://www.kurt-weill.de/pages_en/kwz_6_0_0_0.html 〉 bruce d. mcclung...

Music industry

Music industry   Reference library

Peter Tschmuck

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,427 words

...R. Gelatt : The Fabulous Phonograph. From Tin Foil to High Fidelity (Philadelphia, 1955, 2/1977) O. Read and W.L. Welch : From Tin Foil to Stereo. Evolution of the Phonograph (New York, 1959, 2/1976) P.M. Hirsch : The Structure of the Popular Music Industry: the Filtering Process by Which Records Are Preselected for Public Consumption (Ann Arbor, MI, 1969/ R ) C. Gillett : The Sound of the City: the Rise of Rock and Roll (New York, 1970, rev. and expanded 2/1984, newly illustrated and expanded 3/1996) R.A. Peterson and D.G. Berger : “Cycles in...

Asian American music

Asian American music   Reference library

Eric Hung, Nancy Yunhwa Rao, Susan Miyo Asai, You Young Kang, Alison Arnold, Amy R. Catlin, and Christi-Anne Castro

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
9,939 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Pakistan, Sri Lanka, or to Madurai T.N. Seshagopalan at Cleveland Thyagaraja Festival, 2010. (Gopi Sundaram, Aradhana Committee) South Asian diasporic communities in the UK, the Caribbean, and elsewhere. Indian Americans form by far the largest subgroup, numbering over 2.8 million in 2010 (0.9% of the total US population), and are currently the fastest growing Asian American immigrant population, having increased almost 70% since 2000 . The first significant wave of South Asian immigrants came from the Punjab in the early 20th century to work as migrant...

Women in music

Women in music   Reference library

Judith Tick and Judy Tsou

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
10,342 words
Illustration(s):
2

...cello music, distributed only via the Internet.) In 2010 , digital formats comprised 47% of total record sales, compared to 9% in 2005 . It has also become harder to track the quantitative progress of women in music, because government census data no longer tracks “profession.” The American Community Survey, which sampled 2% of the population, lists women as making up 31.5% of the working musician population from 2005–9 . At the same time, the musical workplace has become more diverse including more Latinas and African Americans in popular music, Asian...

Theaters For Dance

Theaters For Dance   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
5,353 words

...on a sloped platform one foot (0.3 meter) high in front. A true raised stage with traps and machines underneath was not introduced in French court entertainments for another thirty-three years. Until then the settings were one with the dance space in the central area. In 1596 Tomaso Francini , an Italian architect and engineer, came to France, where he created scenes and machines for several court ballets. Among the ballets was the Triomphe de Minerve ( 1615 ) produced in the Petit Bourbon, which used a six-foot-high (2-meter-high) raised stage or trap...

Native American music

Native American music   Reference library

Bruno Nettl, Victoria Lindsay Levine, Bryan Burton, Gertrude Prokosch Kurath, and Victoria Lindsay Levine

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
16,585 words
Illustration(s):
11

...and some of the Northwest Coast cultures. It uses a whistle mechanism to produce the sound, with the “block” (also referred to as saddle, bird, or rider) forming the windway for the air located on the outside of the flute. It may vary in length (13 to 33 inches) and diameter (0.75 to 2 inches). Its mouth end may be blunt, tapered, or a small tube. Many examples are beautifully carved from wood and decorated with leather, beading, or feathers. Usually there are six open finger-holes but both the literature and examples found in museums indicate that these...

Costume In Asian Traditions

Costume In Asian Traditions   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
14,928 words

...ornaments are components of her costume. A tall crown with peacock feathers is placed over her long hair. The most interesting costume used in this performance is a headdress known as mundasu . Fabric is wrapped around the head until it reaches a height of more than two feet (0.7 meter). The resulting shape is a flattened disc with a long point at the top. Since the performer's hair is long, it must be tied in a bun at the top of the head before it is covered with fabric to form the mundasu's foundation. Stuffed cloth tubing is placed around the...

Music education

Music education   Reference library

Richard Colwell, James W. Pruett, Pamela Bristah, Richard J. Colwell, and David G. Woods

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
16,910 words

...seven years, instrumental music could presently be reaching nearly 20% of the high school population in addition to membership in chorus and other music classes. This number is higher than other estimates but is supported by an increase in earned credits from 1.4 in 1990 to 2.0 in 2005 , the same increase in credits as in technology education. Advanced placement theory enrolled 3302 students in 1997 ; 14,120 in 2008 . Music education in American schools in the 21st century can best be discussed in terms of four levels of schooling: pre-school and...

Nine Inch Nails

Nine Inch Nails   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Popular Music (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Music
Length:
929 words

...2007) ٭ ٭ ٭ Ghosts I-IV (The Null Corporation 2008) ٭ ٭ ٭ The Slip (The Null Corporation 2008) ٭ ٭ ٭ COMPILATIONS Fixed remix album (TVT/Nothing 1992) ٭ ٭ Further Down The Spiral remix album (Nothing 1995) ٭ ٭ ٭ Things Falling Apart remix album (Nothing 2000) ٭ ٭ Y34RZ3R0R3M1X3D aka Year Zero Remixed remix album (Interscope 2007) ٭ ٭ ٭ DVD/VIDEOS Closure (Nothing/Interscope Video 1997) And All That Could Have Been (Nothing/Interscope Video 2002) Beside You In Time (Universal 2007) FURTHER READING Nine Inch Nails , Martin Huxley . St. Martin's...

Dance Music

Dance Music   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Popular Music (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,619 words

...Bogdanov (ed.) . Backbeat (USA).2001. Last Night A DJ Saved My Life: The History Of The Disc Jockey , Bill Brewster & Frank Broughton Headline (UK).1998. Altered State: The Story Of Ecstasy Culture And Acid House , Matthew Colin . Serpent's Tail (UK).1997. Clubspotting 2.0: Street & Club Culture , Paolo Davoli & Gabriele Fantuzzi Happy Books (UK).2002. Clubspotting: A Journey Into Club Culture , Paolo Davoli & et al Gingko Press (UK).2001. "You Better Work!" Underground Dance Music In New York City , Kai Fikenscher . Wesleyan University...

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