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Linguistics

Linguistics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
13,561 words
Illustration(s):
11

...of bars or superscripts (e.g., X 0 , X 1 , X 2 , X 3 …). To date, there is no consensus as to the exact number of intermediate levels. Every phrase has a head and every head of the next level of division belongs to the same lexical or functional category, a fact that is captured by the following general rule: X n → … X n-1 …. Phrases that cannot be further expanded are called maximal projections (X max , e.g., noun phrase). Phrases can contain a specifier (one level below X max ), complements (one level above X 0 ). X 0 -elements are lexical categories...

number representation

number representation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,295 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the latter's value ten times. This was the task of the sign 0 . Western Europeans were still in the additive stage with their Roman numerals when confronted by the Indo‐Arabic figures. “How can something which itself designates nothing multiply by ten the value of the figure to which it is attached?” they argued, not distinguishing between sign and signified and between isolated value and positional value. This semiotic confusion had repercussions in the business world, and some city governments, like that of Florence in 1299 , forbade the use of the...

Print and Printing

Print and Printing   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,234 words

...systems for typesetting. In the 20c, there was a pronounced shift towards general literacy and a vast provision of printed materials throughout the world and in particular throughout the English-speaking world. Developments in digital technology, including the internet ; web 2.0 , and new file formats, especially PDF (portable document format) and hypertext , have radically changed the print industry. Nature and impact A printed book not only involves a different technology from a manuscript, but results in a different product. Whereas manuscripts were copied...

Canadian English

Canadian English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
3,365 words

...after the American Revolution ( 1776–83 ), a wave of some 50,000 settlers arrived from the US, usually called Loyalists or United Empire Loyalists ( UELs ). Some 10,000 went to Quebec, 2,500 settling in the Eastern Townships south-east of Montreal and 7,500 in western Quebec, which was named Upper Canada in 1791 , Canada West in 1840 , and Ontario in 1867 . Government promotion of settlement resulted in the arrival from the US of at least 80,000 ‘late loyalists’ after 1791 . By 1812 , Upper Canada’s population of around 100,000 was 80% of American...

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