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Witotoan Languages

Witotoan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
340 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Monos, Caguan River near Sanvicente del Caguan. Huitoto, Murui: also called Bue, Witoto. 2,900 speakers in Peru and Colombia. In Peru: 1,000 speakers along Ampiyacu, Putumayo, and Napo Rivers. No speakers left in Brazil. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 1%, 1 9%, 2 45%, 3 35%, 4 9%, 5 1%. 90% of those under 50 are fairly bilingual in Spanish. Very few are monolingual. A few speak Bora. Parents transmit Murui Huitoto to children. Recognized by Peruvian government for use in schools. Murui Huitoto has more prestige in Colombia than in Peru. In...

Northern Trans-New Guinea Phylum Languages

Northern Trans-New Guinea Phylum Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
894 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in Papua, Indonesia. Dialects are Barat (West Orya), Timur (East Orya), Yapsi-Taja. Slight dialect differences. Bilingual level estimates for Indonesian are 0 0%, 1 55%, 2 23%, 3 19%, 4 2%, 5 1%. All Orya can speak Indonesian or Irianese Malay. Maybe 9 people can speak Sause. Indonesian used with outsiders, in church especially when outsiders are present, for discipline, for discussion of government issues, some business. All domains, adult literacy classes, oral and written use in church, oral use in local business, written use in letters. Vigorous language...

Tucanoan Languages

Tucanoan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,382 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 55%, 1 23%, 2 15%, 3 36%, 4 1%, 5 0%. Once used as a wider contact language by the Spanish colonial administration. In Peru: 144 speakers in northern Peru, Boca de Angusilla, and Santa Marta, a small river off the Napo River near the Ecuador border. Dialects are Angotero, Piojé. All ages. Siona: also called Sioni, Pioje, Pioche-Sioni. 300 speakers in Colombia and Ecuador. In Colombia: Both sides of the Putumayo River. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 0%, 1 5%, 2 20%, 3 60%, 4 10%, 5 5%. In Ecuador:...

South Sulawesi Languages

South Sulawesi Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,132 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Vigorous language use by all Konjo. Closest to Bentong. Konjo, Highland: also called Konjo Pegunungan, Konyo. 150,000 speakers in the central mountain area, Sinjai, Bone, Gowa, Bulukumba districts. Lemolang: also called Baebunta. 2,000 speakers. Bilingual level estimates for Indonesian are 0 0%, 1 3%, 2 75%, 3 22%, 4 0%, 5 0%. Tae' is the dominant language of the area. There are reports that some children do not speak Lemolang; however, of 25 children questioned in 1990 , 76% said they spoke it well. Maiwa: also called Masenrempulu. 50,000 speakers in...

Sepik-Ramu Languages

Sepik-Ramu Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,168 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Sepik Province, Pagwi district, sixteen villages. Closely related to Ambulas. Hewa: also called Sisimin. 2,150 speakers in Koroba, Lagaip, Telefomin districts. Dialects are Upper Lagaip, Central Lagaip, Lower Lagaip, North Hewa. Bilingual level estimates for Tok Pisin, English, Ipili, Duna, Oksapmin are Tok Pisin: 0 85%, 1 8%, 2 5%, 3 2%, 4 0%, 5 0%; English: 0 99%, 1 1%, 2–5 0%; Ipili: 0 98%, 1–5 2%; Duna: 0 96%, 1 2%, 2 1%, 3 1%, 4 0%, 5 0%; Oksapmin: 0 99%, 1–5 1%. 1,600 or more are monolingual. 550 can use Tok Pisin, Ipili, Duna, Oksapmin, or English. All...

Uto-Aztecan Languages

Uto-Aztecan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,500 words
Illustration(s):
2

...also refer to them. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 50%, 1 20%, 2 19%, 3 10%, 4 1%, 5 0%. Nearly all are monolingual. Huichol : also called Vizaritari Vaniuqui, Vizaritari Vaniuki. 20,000 speakers in Mexico. Ethnic population: 20,000. Dialects are San Andrés Cohamiata (Western Huichol), San Sebastián-Santa Catarina (Eastern Huichol), Coyultita. All dialects are reported to be easily inherently intelligible. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 10%, 1 50%, 2 30%, 3 9%, 4 1%, 5 0%. A very few also know Cora. Spanish used in schools. All ages....

East Main Section Trans-New Guinea Languages

East Main Section Trans-New Guinea Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,572 words

...Kanasi: also called Sona. 2,200 speakers in Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba district, on both sides of the main range river valleys from Mt. Thomson. Koitabu: also called Koita. 2,700 speakers in Central Province, around Port Moresby. Dialects are West Koita, East Koita. Bilingual level estimates are Hiri Motu: 0 33%, 1 10%, 2 20%, 3 20%, 4 13%, 5 4%; Motu: 0 80%, 1 5%, 2 5%, 3 5%, 4 5%, 5 0%. Some speakers are bilingual in Hiri Motu, Motu, Tok Pisin, or English. Korafe: also called Korape, Korafi, Kwarafe, Kailikaili. 2,800 speakers in Oro Province, Tufi...

North Indo-Aryan Languages

North Indo-Aryan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,317 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to be understood by speakers of the other varieties, and their attitude toward it is favorable. The Rampuri subdialect is also called “Kochi”; the Rohrui subdialect also called “Soracholi.” Intelligibility among dialects is above 85%. Bilingual level estimates for Hindi are 0 0%, 1 40%, 2 30%, 3 15%, 4 10%, 5 5%. Hindi is used as second language with non-Pahari speakers. Those with more than five years of schooling are more proficient. All ages. Used at home and in religion. Hinduri may be a dialect. Pahari-Potwari: also called Potwari, Pothohari, Potohari,...

Mayan Languages

Mayan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,371 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Catarina Pantelho, San Miguel Mitontic. Partially intelligible with San Andrés Larrainzar Chamula. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 95%, 1 1%, 2 1%, 3 2%, 4 .5%, 5 0%. Tzotzil, Huixtán: also called Huixteco. 20,000 speakers in Mexico, Huixtán region, Chiapas. Dialects are Huixtán, Angel Albino Corzo, La Concordia, Villa Corzo. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 98%, 1 .5%, 2 .5%, 3 .5%, 4 .3%, 5 .2%. Tzotzil, San Andrés Larrainzar: also called San Andrés Tzotzil. 50,000 speakers in Mexico, west central Chiapas. Tzotzil, Venustiano...

Quechuan Languages

Quechuan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,412 words
Illustration(s):
1

...2,782,500 speakers in the highland regions and lowland except around Apolo. Dialects are Sucre, Cochabamba, Oruro, Potosí, Chuquisaca. May be intelligible with Chilean Quechua and Northwest Jujuy Quechua in Argentina. In Argentina: 850,000 speakers in Buenos Aires, some working on docks. Some speakers also in Salta Province. Quechua, Southern Pastaza: also called Inga. 1,000 speakers in Peru, the northern jungle, Anatico Lake, Pastaza and Huasaga Rivers, and along the Urituyacu. Bilingual level estimates for Spanish are 0 60%, 1 20%, 2 10%, 3 10%, 4 0%, 5 0...

Mande Languages

Mande Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,974 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in Benin and Nigeria. In Benin: 70,000 speakers in Borgu Province. Closely related languages: Busa-Bis, (Nigeria), Bokobaru (Nigeria), Shanga (Nigeria). Difficult intelligibility causes them to require separate literature. Bilingual level estimates for French are 0 80%, 1 10%, 2 4%, 3 3%, 4 2%, 5 1%. Speakers use French (Benin), English (Nigeria), Hausa, Yoruba, Bariba, or Fulfulde as second language when speaking to people from those groups. Each of the related languages has strong ethnic pride. In Nigeria: 40,000 speakers. Other Busa languages in Nigeria...

Tibeto-Kanauri Languages

Tibeto-Kanauri Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,013 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in Morang Tahsil. Closest to Shumcho and Sunam. Jirel: also called Ziral, Jiri, Jirial. 8,000 speakers in Nepal. Accent differences, but not real dialects. Some comprehension of Lhasa Tibetan and some Tibetan dialects. Bilingual level estimates for Nepali are 0 few, 1 5%, 2 40%, 3 <50%, 4 <10%, 5 0%. A few know some Sherpa, very few some Tamang and Sunwar. Some know enough Nepali only for trade (mainly woman). All ages. Jirel used with Jirel speakers, Nepali to others. Karsa and Kharok accents are more prestigious, more educated. Nepali viewed as...

Formal Grammar

Formal Grammar   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,085 words

...stages are stated informally in (2) and parameterized in (3): (2a) V′ consists of a head and a complement phrase. (2b) A constituent may be moved. (2c) Movement may not cross more than one bounding node, that is, the subjacency Condition. (3a) A head may either precede or follow its complement. (3b) Movement may be realized in the lexicon, in syntax, at Phonetic Form, or at Logical Form. (3c) The bounding nodes include NP and one or both of S′ (CP) and S (IP). A particular grammar, then, consists of principles (2a–c), with the options of (3a–c) fixed...

Hausa

Hausa   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,012 words

...any other direct object (Form C). Table 4 presents the forms for two- and three-syllable verbs. Grade 0, a later addition to the grade system, contains the few monosyllabic verbs that exist in the language. They all have high tone and end in - i or - aa , e.g. cí ‘eat’, sháa ‘drink’. Grade 1 contains basic a -final, mostly transitive, verbs, e.g. dáfà ‘cook’, as well as derived “applicatives,” which are often required with indirect objects. Grade 2, an exclusively transitive class, contains basic verbs with final - i , e.g. sàyí ‘buy’, as well as...

Dravidian Languages

Dravidian Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,005 words
Illustration(s):
2

...19% to 34% of Northern Gondi; 35% of Dandami Maria. All ages. All domains. Muria, Far Western: spoken in India in Maharashtra, northern Garhichiroli district, Kurkhed Taluk. 79% to 88% intelligibility of other Muria languages; 74% of Dandami Maria, 0% to 34% of Northern Gondi, 6% to 50% of Southern Gondi, 2% to 70% of Maria. All ages. All domains. Muria, Western: also called Jhoria, Mudia, Muria Gondi. 12,898 speakers in India, in Madhya Pradesh, northern and western Bastar district. Dialects are Sonapal, Banchapai, Dhanora. 80% to 96% intelligibility...

Mathematical Linguistics

Mathematical Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
12,904 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Theory and the Chomsky Hierarchy The Chomsky hierarchy is the term given to a series of increasingly comprehensive classes of formal languages containing the following principal members: finite-state (Type 3), context-free (Type 2), context-sensitive (Type 1), and R[ ecursively ] E[ numerable ] (r.e., Type 0). Types 1 and 2 were proposed by Chomsky 1963 , on the basis of his investigations into the formal properties of phrase-structure systems of syntactic description. The r.e. and finite-state languages were known from automata theory and recursive...

Northern Philippine Languages

Northern Philippine Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,896 words
Illustration(s):
1

...western Nueva Vizcaya Province, Luzon. Dialects are Daklan, Kabayan, Bokod. Ibanag: also called Ybanag. 500,000 speakers in Isabela and Cagayan Provinces, Luzon. Dialects are North Ibanag, South Ibanag. 69% intelligibility of Itawit. Bilingual level estimates for Ilocano are 0 5%, 1 25%, 2 30%, 3 25%, 4 10%, 5 5%. Speakers also use Tagalog as second language. Speakers have pride in their language. Related to Yogad. Ibatan: also called Babuyan, Ibataan, Ivatan. 1,300 speakers on Babuyan Island, north of Luzon. Intelligibility of Itbayaten Ivatan 64%; Basco...

Polynesian Languages

Polynesian Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,007 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and USA. On Easter Island, Chile: 2,409 speakers. Easter Island is 3,800 km from Chile, 4,000 km from Tahiti. Bilingualism in Spanish. In French Polynesia: 236 speakers. Rarotongan: also called Cook Island, Cook Islands Maori, Maori, Kuki Airani, Rarotongan-Mangaian. 43,000 speakers on Cook Islands, New Zealand, and French Polynesia. In Cook Islands: 16,800 speakers on 13 inhabited Cook Islands. Dialects are Mitiaro, Mauke, Atiu, Mangaia, Rarotonga, Aitutaki. In 1987 , the government was deciding on the orthography. Trade language. Second language of Penrhyn...

Language Change

Language Change   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
11,996 words
Illustration(s):
4

...features, such as (1) and (2), this is likely to be true. However, other features typically regarded as regionalisms, such as (3), (4) and (5), can be found in ancient Rome itself (see Table 2). Table 1. Phonological and Morphological Variation in Late Republican Latin (1) e vs. ae < * ai . Latin of Pisaurum Cesula feminine name vs. Roman Latin Caesula Latin of Spoleto cedito ‘he shall cut’ vs. Roman Latin caedito (2) o vs. u < * ou Latin of Norba Locina ‘Lucina, goddess of childbirth’ vs. Roman Latin Lucina (3) - 0 vs. - s after long vowels...

Computational Linguistics

Computational Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
17,923 words
Illustration(s):
2

...is the formalism corresponding to Type 2 rewrite rules, the so-called C[ontext-] F[ree] G[rammar]s. The CFG formalism was developed as a codification of the type of immediate-constituent analysis found in structural linguistics; CFGs have served as components of later formalisms in linguistics (e.g. the base component of a transformational grammar) and NLP. The languages defined by these grammars are specified procedurally as the output of a string-generating algorithm. However, the more restrictive (non-type-0) classes have an alternative declarative...

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