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Postwar reconstruction

Postwar reconstruction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
943 words

...Capitalism in Boom and Depression (1981) , concluded that it was less interventionist than either the contemporary Labour government in Britain or the subsequent Menzies ministries in Australia. Dave Clark , in ‘Political Economy of Labour in Office’ (in Paul A. Samuelson , ed., Economics , 1975) , pointed to the fact that no capital gains tax was introduced and that the percentage of GNP ‘controlled by the state’ only rose from 13.0 per cent in 1941 to 14.9 per cent in 1949 —when indirect taxes still accounted for an ‘inordinately high’ 44.7 per cent...

foreign aid

foreign aid   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Canadian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
748 words

... Paul Gérin-Lajoie , a former Quebec cabinet minister and cida president in 1970–7 , encouraged expansion of Canadian aid to most parts of the developing world. In 1970 , the government promised to meet the donor country oda target endorsed by the un —0.7 per cent of gross national product ( GNP ). By 1975–6 , aid spending exceeded $900 million, the oda/gnp ratio reached 0.53 per cent, and Canada won praise as a generous donor. The latter half of the 1970s was marked by acrimonious ‘North-South dialogue’ and growing scepticism among donors about the...

Universities

Universities   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
847 words

...and peripheral, catering to 0.2 per cent of the population. Notwithstanding their dependence on government funding, they were autonomous, self-governing institutions, but the price of that independence was chronic insufficiency of resources—a situation that became critical as student numbers began to rise. The war transformed public opinion on the value of scientific research and an educated workforce. Once education and research became matters of national interest, governments, especially the Commonwealth government newly endowed with income-taxing...

Dominican Home Country Project

Dominican Home Country Project   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,386 words

...). Table 2. Comparative Analysis of the Dominican 2004 Presidential Elections City/State Registered Votes Cast Percent Boston 4,202 3,536 84.15% Miami 2,399 1,776 74.03% New Jersey 6,418 4,502 70.15% New York 24,343 16,608 68.22% Total U.S. 37,362 26,422 70.7% Total D.R. 5,020,703 3,656,850 72.85% Source: Junta Central Electoral. Another initiative taken by the Dominican government is the establishment of cultural institutions in the United States, such as la Casa de la Cultura Dominicana, located in New York since 1985 . The Dominican government has also...

Life Expectancy.

Life Expectancy.   Reference library

Michael Haines

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,397 words

... 38.4 23.0 47.3 39.5 216.8 340.0 1860 43.6 49.4 41.3 181.3 1870 45.2 50.6 42.5 175.5 1880 40.5 48.3 40.4 214.8 1890 46.8 50.4 42.2 150.7 1900 51.8 41.8 52.5 47.2 44.1 39.5 110.8 170.3 1910 52.7 43.1 53.0 47.9 44.5 40.1 106.1 161.9 1920 57.4 47.0 54.6 45.3 46.0 37.8 82.1 131.7 1930 60.8 48.5 56.3 44.8 47.2 36.6 60.1 99.9 1940 64.9 53.9 58.8 49.5 49.5 40.7 43.2 73.8 1950...

Race and Racialization

Race and Racialization   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,933 words

...All Hispanics Mexicans Puerto Ricans Cubans Other Hispanics White 79.1 47.9 48.4 46.4 84.4 44.5 Black or African American 13.8 2.0 1.4 6.4 3.8 2.8 American Indian or Alaska Native 0.8 1.2 1.2 0.7 0.2 1.2 Asian 4.1 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.5 Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 Some other race 0.2 42.2 43.6 38.2 7.2 42.0 Two or more races 1.9 6.3 4.9 7.6 3.8 8.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Source: Grieco and Cassidy , Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin ; IUPLR, “Race for Hispanic Country of Origin by Regional...

Latino Identities and Ethnicities

Latino Identities and Ethnicities   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
6,542 words

...2.0 143,660 25.4  Other Central American 7,010 0.0 93,234 0.3 86,224 1230.0 South American 1,035,602 4.7 1,419,979 4.0 384,377 37.1  Argentinean 100,921 0.5 107,275 0.3 6,354 6.3  Bolivian 38,073 0.2 45,188 0.1 7,115 18.7  Chilean 68,799 0.3 73,951 0.2 5,152 7.5  Colombian 378,726 1.7 496,748 1.4 118,022 31.2  Ecuadorian 191,198 0.9 273,013 0.8 81,815 42.8  Paraguayan 6,662 0.0 8,929 0.0 2,267 34.0  Peruvian 175,035 0.8 247,601 0.7 72,566 41.5  Uruguayan 21,996 0.1 20,242 0.1 −1,754 −8.0  Venezuelan 47,997 0.2 96,091 0.3 48,094 100.2  Other South American...

poor law

poor law   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
461 words

...and enforcing the growing body of sanitary and other public health‐related legislation, and their role in local government now rivalled that of grand juries . Poor law expenditure rose from around £0.5 million in 1859 to over £1 million in 1876 , and reached £1.5 million in 1895 . Notwithstanding the increasing influence of Catholic and nationalist representatives in its administration, especially after the Local Government Act of 1898 , the poor law remained an unpopular form of welfare. The first Dáil declared its intention of abolishing...

Nsemi, Ne Mwanda

Nsemi, Ne Mwanda (fl. late twentieth century)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,165 words

....” 25 November 2008. http://www.hrw.org/en/node/76188/section/1 . United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Human Rights Division. “Special Inquiry into the Bas Congo Events of February and March 2008.” http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,MONUC,COD,48624eae2,0.html . Wamba-dia-Wamba, Ernst . “Bundu dia Kongo: A Kongolese Fundamentalist Religious Movement.” In East African Expressions of Christianity , edited by Thomas Spear , and Isaria N. Kimambo , pp. 215–221. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1999. rich ...

Wyoming

Wyoming   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
719 words

...of western states and territories during the so-called cattle kingdom years, c. 1865–1920 . If larger states like California, Missouri, and Texas are excluded, the percentage is even smaller, somewhere around 2 to 3 percent. Wyoming was no exception. In 1880 blacks constituted approximately 1.4 percent of the population; in 1990 , about 0.8 percent, or about 3,600 people. What is striking about these percentages is that in the late nineteenth century about 90 percent of these African Americans were located in one city, Cheyenne. A hundred years later...

Washington

Washington   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
671 words

...population. According to 2002 figures, Latinos and Latinas make up 8 percent of the state's population (490,448 out of 6.1 million total population), with a majority of Mexican origin (75 percent) followed by Puerto Ricans (3.6 percent), Central Americans (2.8 percent), and South Americans (2.0 percent). Despite being the largest minority group in Washington State, Latinos and Latinas still face major political, social, and economic challenges. These include a 50 percent high school drop out rate, below poverty-level wages and poor housing for...

Nicaraguan Organizations

Nicaraguan Organizations   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,207 words

...received asylum. This is not to say that all Nicaraguan applications for political asylum during this period were successful. In fact, only 27 percent of applicants obtained asylum. However, for Salvadorans and Guatemalans, who were fleeing governments backed by the United States, the approval rates were 2.5 percent and 2.0 percent respectively. In 1986 the U.S. Congress passed the Immigration Reform and Control Act ( IRCA ). It benefited many Nicaraguans because it allowed immigrants who had arrived before 1982 to remain in the country legally. However,...

Familia

Familia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
5,862 words

...High School Graduate (in percentages) All United States $42,151 9.3 16.9 12.0 27.8 84.1 White $44,232 7.3 12.9 13.9 24.7 84.9 African American $30,436 21.9 32.7 45.1 41.0 78.5 Asian American $55,525 10.3 11.5 13.2 23.0 85.7 Hispanic $33,455 20.2 30.3 23.4 38.8 57.0 Mexican $31,123 21.2 31.5 21.1 28.4 51 Puerto Rican $30,129 23.0 37.2 35.8 47.4 64.3 Cuban $38,312 15.0 20.2 18.3 33.8 73.0 Central/South American $33,105 16.3 20.9 24.6 32.0 64.3 Other Hispanic $34,935 18.1 28.7 27.4 40.0 71.6 Labor Force Participation (in percentages) Labor Force Participation by...

Operation Bootstrap/Section 936

Operation Bootstrap/Section 936   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,261 words

...decreased from a high of 20.7 percent in 1984 to 15 percent by 1988 , and economic growth resurfaced (3.5 percent in 1986 , 4.2 percent in 1987 , and 4.4 percent in 1988 ) after real losses between 1981 and 1986 . These economic factors and others of a social and political nature favored the reelection of the pro-commonwealth governor in 1988 . Throughout the period from 1984 to 1992 the pro-commonwealth government increasingly stressed the uniqueness of Section 936 as a tool for economic development while seeking to firmly anchor the Puerto...

Ojukwu, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu

Ojukwu, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu (1933–2011)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,103 words

...and September 1966 . These riots killed as many as 50,000 people and spurred a mass exodus of Igbo from the north to the Eastern Region. According to some accounts, as many as 2 million people fled the violence to their ancestral homeland in the east. Gowon also sought to rectify the instability of the regional system in Nigeria. However, his solution was to create a federal government comprised of twelve states. Ojukwu opposed this solution for several reasons. First, the Eastern Region was the most heterogeneous part of Nigeria, and splitting the region into...

War of 1812.

War of 1812.   Reference library

William Earl Weeks

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,072 words

...and the closing of the First Bank of the United States in 1811 meant that no central bank could stabilize the currency. In November 1814 the federal government defaulted on its bond payments and was effectively bankrupt. Only Great Britain's precarious situation in Europe in late 1814 , combined with the defeat of its invasion forces in the United States, prompted the government of Lord Liverpool to compromise. On 24 December 1814 , American and British negotiators meeting at Ghent, Belgium, signed a treaty reestablishing the prewar status...

Government Officials

Government Officials   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,228 words

...to the president. (See individual entry: Williams, Margaret .) Bibliography Bouie Donald, Bernice . Untitled Document 2003. http://216.239.39.104/search?q=cache:Uu8BD0frMo8J:www.jtbf.org/article_iii_judges/ . Denhardt, Robert B. Public Administration: An Action Orientation . Houston, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1999. Eisinger, Peter K. Black Employment in City Government, 1973-1980 . Washington, DC: Joint Center for Political Studies, 1983. General Accounting Office . Senior Executive Service: Diversity Increased in the Past Decade. Report...

Immigration

Immigration   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Black British History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,322 words

...there is a significant improvement in the housing conditions of Blacks and the gap between Blacks and Whites has narrowed. 2. Political reponses to immigration The political and public reactions to the immigration of Black and other ethnic minorities started after the arrival of the Empire Windrush in 1948 . There was some interest shown in the House of Commons in the form of MPs questioning relevant ministers, and the government set up an interdepartmental working party to look into the issue of non‐white immigration. This working party and another...

Dominicans

Dominicans   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
7,136 words

...fabricators, and laborers 30.2 14.5 Service 27.8 14.2 Farm, forestry, and fishing — 2.6 Total 100.0 100.0 Source: Levitt, 2001 . Table 6. Industrial Distribution of the Dominican Labor Force in the Continental United States, 1997–2000 (in percentages) Industry Dominicans Total U.S. Agriculture, mining, and forestry 2.0 2.9 Construction 4.3 6.7 Manufacturing 17.5 15.5 Transportation and communications 8.5 5.8 Wholesale trade 4.5 3.8 Retail trade 23.3 17.3 Finance, insurance, and real estate 5.7 6.4 Business and repair services 7.0 6.9 Personal services 5.3...

Education

Education   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
10,852 words
Illustration(s):
3

...281 439 64.0 New Hampshire 73 149 49.0 Vermont 90 218 41.3 Massachusetts 1,439 3,594 40.0 Rhode Island 551 1,050 52.5 Connecticut 1,264 2,412 52.4 New York 5,447 15,178 35.9 New Jersey 2,326 11,755 19.8 Pennsylvania 6,499 18,096 35.9 Ohio 2,531 9,634 26.3 Indiana 927 4,622 20.0 Illinois 323 1,979 16.3 Michigan 207 809 25.6 Wisconsin 67 198 33.8 Minn. Territory 2 14 14.3 Iowa 17 129 13.2 Ks.-Not Organized _____ _____ _____ California 1 126 0.8 Oregon Territory 2 73 2.7 Slave States Delaware 187 7.134 2.6 Maryland 1,616 26,590 6.1 Kentucky 288 3,216 9.0 Missouri...

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