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Pakistan

Pakistan  

Asia's great underachiever. Democracy has yet to take hold and now the country is under attack from terrorists.Pakistan has four main geographical regions. First, in the far north is the Hindu Kush ...
Stables

Stables   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,367 words
Illustration(s):
3

...1.04 >0.80? (2 * 1.79) ( 1988 , Abb. 9) Bastam Ostbau (Kleiss, 1988 ) — 2.92 — — Bastam Südtor ( ibid. ) — 2.75 0.99 — Bastam Bldg. NNE of Südtor ( ibid. ) 2 * 1.48 3.05 1.12 — Syrian Tel Hadar (Kochavi et al., 1992 ) 1.37 (est.) 3.6 (est.) — — Syrian ῾Ein-Gev (Kochavi, 1993 b ) ±1.34 ±2.60 — — Mean of modern authors above: 1.75 n = 5 3.08 n = 5 1.22 n = 3 0.91 n = 3 Standard Deviation mod. auth.: ±0.13 ±0.27 ±0.12 ±0.27 Mean of Holladay, 1986 , fig. 2: 1.81 n = 10 3.27 n = 9 1.20 n = 6 — Std. Dev. Holladay, 1986 , fig. 2: ±0.26 ±0.35 ±0.12 —...

Demography

Demography   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,767 words

...0.4 ha (one acre) is needed. With fallow land—a minimum of one-third of the cultivable land—the grain-producing area should reach at least 0.6 ha (1.5 acres). To supply the other components of the food basket, more area was needed—for vegetables, fruits, legumes, wine, and oil. A certain amount of land also was required for growing fibers for textiles, mostly flax. It is difficult to estimate accurately how much land was needed for these crops, but it seems that 0.4 ha is the bare minimum. Thus, the minimum area necessary to feed one person is one hectare (2.5...

Stratigraphy

Stratigraphy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,911 words
Illustration(s):
5

...homes, public buildings, and the city wall ( Hg. 1.2–14 ; Neh. passim). Some towns, like stratum III at Beersheba, seem to have been planned and built as a unit, with major government assistance indicated not only by the scale of work involved in the fortification, but also by the use of Cedar from Lebanon, presumably upon a largely deserted tell. [See Beersheba .] STRATIGRAPHY. Figure 4. Part of Kenyon's section through the MB and EB fortifications at Jericho . (After Kenyon, 1956, fig. 2) Over the course of centuries of occupation and...

House

House   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
21,033 words
Illustration(s):
14

...(front to back) was 3.5 m (SD=0.5 m). Because only house 1039a lacked probable pillar bases (depth=2.8 m), the mean depth (plus bearing lengths at each end) cannot be taken as a function of the lengths of locally available beams. Living rooms ranged from 12.8 to 30.4 sq m, (x̄=19 sq m, SD=6.2 sq m) (see table 1). From the same excavation area, the mean dimensions of the three kitchen-storerooms and one other small room were width x̄=2.9 m (SD=1.3 m), depth x̄=2 m (SD=3 m); interior areas ranged from 0.3 to 13.1 sq m (x̄=6.2 sq m, SD=4.6 sq m) (see table 1)....

Egypt

Egypt   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
14,140 words
Illustration(s):
5

...jewelry. Old Kingdom (Third–Sixth Dynasties: c. 2700–2190 bce ). The Old Kingdom is frequently labeled the Pyramid Age. The country was administered by a strong, highly centralized government headed by a monarch whose absolute authority and divinity were reinforced during the fifth dynasty by his formal claim to be the son of the sun god Re. On a day-to-day basis, the government was run by a large bureaucracy managed by high officials who often were members of the royal family. The Old Kingdom was a period of economic prosperity and political unity....

Ceramics

Ceramics   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
21,461 words
Illustration(s):
20

...however, it is called Ubaid 0, because the pottery assemblage found at ᾽Oueili was both earlier than and developmentally related to the Ubaid 1. Until the mid-1980s, Ubaid 1 had been believed to be the earliest pottery in southern Mesopotamia. The lowest levels at ᾽Oueili have not yet been reached, and the presence of Neolithic-looking sherds out of context in higher levels make it almost certain that still-earlier phases will have to be added to the southern Mesopotamian ceramic sequence (Huot, 1992 ). Ubaid 0 vessels were decorated with simple...

Palestine

Palestine   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
25,655 words
Illustration(s):
1

...found were the remains of large mammals, best correlated with Middle Pleistocene fauna that include elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, wild boar, and deer and two fragments of a human femora. The site overlies a lava flow dated by potassium/argon to 0.68 million years ago and is estimated to be around 0.6–0.5 million years old. Upper Acheulean occurrences, mostly collected from surface scatters, were located throughout the region and at such cave sites as Tabun (Mt. Carmel) and Umm Qaṭafa (Wadi Khareitoun, Judean Desert). [See Tabun .] The incorporated...

Climatology: Methods

Climatology: Methods   Reference library

Sharon E. Nicholson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
12,177 words
Illustration(s):
22

...0.5, 1.0, and 2.5 degrees. 5 The full complement of data available from CRU is described at their website (www.cru.uea.ac.uk). It includes, in addition to monthly mean air temperature and monthly precipitation, records of maximum and minimum temperature and many other meteorological variables. A land precipitation data set running from 1901 to 1998 is available at both 5 degree latitude/longitude resolution and 2.5 degree by 3.75 degree resolution. 6 The University of Delaware data set also runs from 1901 to 2014 , but at a resolution of 0.5...

Quantitative Methods and Economic Statistical Sources for African History

Quantitative Methods and Economic Statistical Sources for African History   Reference library

Morten Jerven

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
12,951 words

...“The Remarkable Wealth of the Dutch Cape Colony: Measurements from Eighteenth-Century Probate Inventories,” Economic History Review 66, no. 2 (2013): 419–448. 86. Acemoglu et al., Why Nations Fail . 87. See, for example, Ewout Frankema, “Raising Revenue in the British Empire, 1870–1940: How ‘Extractive’ Were Colonial Taxes?” Journal of Global History , 5, no. 3 (2010): 447–477; “Colonial Taxation and Government Spending in British Africa, 1880–1940: Maximizing Revenue or Minimizing Effort?” Explorations in Economic History , 48, no. 1 (2011):...

Writing African History in France during the Colonial Era

Writing African History in France during the Colonial Era   Reference library

Sophie Dulucq

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
9,493 words
Illustration(s):
3

...to be the absolute embodiment of such an ideal. 17 Institutionalizing Colonial History in French Academia (1890s–1930s). As Pierre Singaravélou pointed out, intense lobbying promoted the pursuit of colonial sciences throughout the empire: “The Colonial Ministry, various Governments General, local municipal councils and chambers of commerce, and the colonial lobby funded the colonial sciences, hoping to attract talented youth to careers in the empire and to win over public opinion. A larger nébuleuse of Parisian, provincial, and overseas learned...

Documentary Sources and Methods for Precolonial African History

Documentary Sources and Methods for Precolonial African History   Reference library

Christina Mobley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
30,112 words

...of government, demotic became associated with Egyptian culture, history, and nationalism; Ptolemaic texts written in Greek refer to demotic as “Egyptian.” 36 For example, the early 3rd-century Egyptian priest Manetho of Sebennytus wrote a history of Egypt in Greek drawing on Egyptian sources; the kinglist he compiled is still the central chronology of the ruling dynasties of ancient Egypt. Manetho’s text highlights the use of Egyptian language and writing throughout the Ptolemaic period, a practice that, according to Diodorus, continued at least into the 2nd...

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