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Constantinople

Constantinople   Reference library

Anthony A. M. Bryer

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,326 words

...was a hippodrome, embellished with classical statuary and obelisks. Between the hippodrome and the Sea of Marmara lay the inadequately excavated Great Palace, a walled city within a city, stretching almost 1.2 miles (2 km), an accumulation of palaces and barracks, ministries and monasteries, mint and silkworks, which was the heart of Byzantine government and its ceremonial until the twelfth century. To the east of the milion lay the cathedral of the empire, dedicated to the Holy Wisdom of God (Hagia Sophia) and inaugurated in its surviving form by Emperor...

Satellite Imagery

Satellite Imagery   Reference library

Martin J. F. Fowler

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,298 words

...lower orbit resulted in panchromatic and multispectral imagery with GSDs of 2 feet (0.6 m) and 6.5 feet (2 m), respectively. The highest resolution commercial imagery currently available is acquired by the GeoEye-1 satellite, which provides 1.6-foot (0.5-m) and 5.4-foot (1.64-m) GSD products. While the panchromatic sensor carried by the satellite is capable of a GSD of 1.3 feet (0.4 m), the publicly available product is currently “capped” at the lower resolution by the U.S. government on grounds of national security. Commercial high-resolution satellite images...

Web-Based Digital Interpretation

Web-Based Digital Interpretation   Reference library

Elisa Giaccardi

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,694 words

...interpretation. The availability of free and open resources that can be downloaded and reused by anyone challenges the expert role of archaeologists, while producing concerns about the need of best practices in the use of digital data. In particular, social networks and Web 2.0 applications for content and media sharing are expanding the idea of archaeology “by the people, for the people.” They activate local knowledge and promote user communities’ participation and engagement in the production and interpretation of archaeological findings. Technologies...

Egypt

Egypt   Reference library

Donald Malcolm Reid, Neil Asher Silberman, Diane Holmes, Isabella Caneva, Ogden Goelet, Miroslav Bárta, Donald B. Spanel, Josef Wegner, and Edward Bleiberg

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
13,837 words

..., 2d ed., 2006. Diane Holmes revised by Isabella Caneva Egypt: Old Kingdom Egypt Old Kingdom Egypt is one of the world’s earliest states. Our image of this period is based on ancient written sources (papyri, monumental and tomb inscriptions, seal impressions), architectural, archaeological, and iconographic evidence, and environmental data. Our understanding of daily life in this period is derived chiefly from archaeological finds and the scenes of daily life found in the hundreds of private tombs belonging to the nobility and high officials. “Dynasty 0”...

Roman Empire

Roman Empire   Reference library

Colin M. Wells, R. J. A. Wilson, David H. French, A. Trevor Hodge, Stephen L. Dyson, and David F. Graf

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
12,461 words

...Syria was remarkably uniform. There were three elements: large, sometimes huge, edge stones, laid flat, one row on either side of the road; a spine of smaller stones, set vertically on edge, dividing the road into two lanes; and an in-fill of small stones, roughly 3 to 9 inches (0.10–0.30 m) across, between the edge stones and the spine. There was only one layer of road surface. No bedding or foundations were employed. There is no evidence for digging or excavating a trench for the road surface. The surface stones were laid directly on the ground or topsoil. It...

Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia   Reference library

James A. Armstrong, James A. Armstrong, James A. Armstrong, and James A. Armstrong

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
8,926 words

...loyal to him. In this fashion local sensitivities were appeased, yet local power was kept in check. Shulgi instituted regional specialization for agricultural products and other goods. Such specialization necessitated a massive governmental redistribution system, which in turn meant that every item that passed through government hands, no matter how small, had to be recorded, giving rise to the thousands upon thousands of Ur III economic texts that have survived. Finally, like the kings of Agade before him, Shulgi made himself a god. Expanding his domain to...

Maya Civilization

Maya Civilization   Reference library

Patricia A. McAnany, Satoru Murata, David Humiston Kelley, Michael D. Coe, Gerardo Aldana, T. Patrick Culbert, Simon Martin, Payson D. Sheets, T. Patrick Culbert, Astrid Runggaldier, George Michaels, Patricia A. McAnany, and Jason Yaeger

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
13,801 words

...beginning days named the year and followed in mathematically determined regular sequence: 1 Akbal, 2 Lamat, 3 Ben, 4 Etz’nab, 5 Akbal…; 1 Imix, which began the 260-day period, could fall only on the fourth, ninth, fourteenth, and nineteenth days of the month and hence could never begin the year. Day names were associated with many other phenomena. Those most emphasized by the Maya were colors and directions. The most commonly used era base was a day 13.0.0.0.04 Ahau 8 Cumku, 3,000 years before the earliest known dated monuments were erected. The recorded...

Japan and Korea

Japan and Korea   Reference library

Gina L. Barnes, Gary W. Crawford, and Gyoung-Ah Lee

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
7,419 words

...the Hantan River were found in sediment layers on top of a lava plateau. The volcanic eruption is believed to have happened shortly after 0.4 mya, based on the potassium-argon (K-Ar) dates of the basalt. The debate is therefore how long after the eruption the sedimentation was formed. Some suggest rapid sedimentation and subsequent Paleolithic occupation by 0.3 mya, while others claim for the much younger dates around 0.1 mya, relying on 14 C and thermoluminescence dates. The current data does not clarify the tripartite subdivision of the Paleolithic Period...

Asia

Asia   Reference library

George Michaels, Gregory L. Possehl, Charles Higham, Song Nai Rhee, Kidong Bae, and Namita Sugandhi

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
13,562 words

...occurred by around 1.7 million years BP, though that is also debatable. The oldest accepted hominin in China is Homo erectus from Gongwangling, dated to about 1.2 million years BP. Acheulian-like stone industries have been observed at many localities in China; for instance, in the Bose basin in southwestern China and the Luonan basin in central China. The Bose lithic industry is dated back to 0.8 million years ago, while the Luonan basin bifaces are considered younger. Despite the presence of bifaces, stone tool industries before the advent of the Upper...

Greece

Greece   Reference library

Yannis Hamilakis, Neil Asher Silberman, John K. Papadopoulos, Ian Morris, H. A. Shapiro, Mark D. Stansbury-O’Donnell, Frank Holt, and Timothy E. Gregory

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
11,848 words

...of Greece and Rome . ] Biers, William . The Archaeology of Greece: An Introduction , 2d ed., 1987. Burn, A. R. Persia and the Greeks: The Defence of the West, c. 546–478 B.C. 2d ed., 1984. Bury, John , and Russell Meiggs . A History of Greece to the Death of Alexander the Great , 4th ed., 1975. Crane, G. , ed. Perseus 1.0, 1992. Lewis, D. M. , J. Boardman , K. K. Davis , and M. Ostwald , eds. “The Fifth Century BC.” In Cambridge Ancient History , 2d ed., 1992. Meiggs, Russell . The Athenian Empire , 1972. Morris, Ian , ed. ...

Pakistan

Pakistan  

Asia's great underachiever. Democracy has yet to take hold and now the country is under attack from terrorists.Pakistan has four main geographical regions. First, in the far north is the Hindu Kush ...
Jezreel

Jezreel   Reference library

Norma Franklin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
3,699 words

...number of the modern houses is, perhaps, 20 or 30 in all. ( The Survey of Western Palestine , vol. 2 [London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund, 1882 ], p. 88) The wealthy Sursock family of Beirut owned most of the land north and east of Zerin. In 1882 , wishing to increase the value of their land in order to sell it at a profit, they proposed the construction of a railway linking Haifa with cities east of the Jordan River. The Ottoman government eventually built the valley railway, and its first five stations opened in 1904 . The station nearest...

Economy, Bronze and Iron Age

Economy, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Hayah Katz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,244 words

...by and weighing, on average, 0.4 ounces (11.33 grams). Additional units were multiples based on 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 40. The importance of the shekel is evident from its frequent appearance in the biblical text ( Gen 23:16 , Exod 38:29 , 1 Sam 9:8 , Ezek 45:12 ). At times, only the numerical amount of silver is mentioned and the word “shekel” is omitted, presumably because it was self-evident that the unit of weight was the shekel and there was no need to state it (for example, Gen 20:16 , 2 Kgs 6:25 , Hos 3:2 , Zech 11:12 ). Because a...

Tell en-Naṣbeh

Tell en-Naṣbeh   Reference library

Jeffrey R. Zorn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,297 words

...from this period at this site from stratum 2. The layout of stratum 2 was quite different from the cramped conditions of stratum 3. The architecture of stratum 2 reflects the site’s change in function, from fortified rural border town to minor administrative center under the Babylonians, in which many of the inhabitants would have been functionaries of the government and their dependents. The houses are consistently of the four-room type; are about twice the size of the dwellings of stratum 3, at 1,432 ft 2 (133 m 2 ); are more spread out; usually do not share...

Ramat Rahel

Ramat Rahel   Reference library

Oded Lipschits

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,252 words

...the Persian and early Hellenistic periods the palace at Ramat Rahel was used in an administrative/governmental capacity for collecting wine and oil jars in Judah, probably as a levy. The renewed excavations exposed the remains of a large, sturdy building, shedding new light on Persian-period Ramat Rahel. Located on the northwestern side of the second-phase palace complex, it was a rectangular structure that covered an area of about 6,458.3 ft 2 (600 m 2 , about 65.6 by 98.4 ft [20 by 30 m]) and served as a northward expansion of the fortress tower...

Beersheba

Beersheba   Reference library

Gunnar Lehmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,352 words

...were rebuilt in stratum II. Upon entering the settlement, pack animals could be unpacked on the small plaza and the goods carried a few meters to the storage buildings. The central hall had a width of 6.6 ft (2 m), while the two flanking halls were 8.2 ft (2.5 m) wide. Cobblestone floors in the flanking halls were sunk ca. 1.3 ft (ca. 0.4 m) below the level of the street and below the floor of the central hall, which was made of beaten earth. In the case of Tel Sheba ʾ stratum II the finds proved that the buildings were storage houses and not stables....

Hazor

Hazor   Reference library

Sharon Zuckerman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,538 words
Illustration(s):
1

...minor modifications. Several residences, mostly of the four-room type, were built to the west and south of the administrative quarter, encroaching open public spaces. The best example, Building 2a, was built in this phase. The urban plan and internal organization of Hazor during the ninth century b.c.e. attests to its role as a major administrative and governmental center within the system of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. The popular four-room house plan embodied social, economic, cognitive, and cosmological concepts characterizing Iron-Age Israelite...

Hippos

Hippos   Reference library

Arthur Segal

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,336 words

...have been excavated. The street, which extends from the forum in the direction of the east gate, was 13.8 ft (4.2 m) wide. It was paved carefully with basalt flagstones placed obliquely and lined on both sides by monolithic columns made of gray granite, originating in Aswan, Egypt. The scores of columns that once stood along the street and lay strewn upon its surface were of uniform measurement with a height of 15 ft (4.6 m), a base diameter of 2 ft (0.6 m), and a weight of about 4.1 tons (3.7 metric tons). The columns were mounted on Attic bases that were not...

Timnah, Tel Batash

Timnah, Tel Batash   Reference library

Amihai Mazar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,576 words

...is located in the western part of the Sorek Valley, 4.3 miles (7 km) northwest of Beth-Shemesh, 3.4 miles (5.5 km) east of Tel Miqne/Ekron, and 5 miles (8 km) south of Gezer. The square mound, 9.8 acres (4 ha) in area at its base and 5.5 acres (2.25 ha) at its summit, is located close to the Sorek brook and its ca. 0.9 mile (1.5 km) wide valley that provided abundant fertile land and water. The valley also served as a main artery connecting the coastal plain with the inner Shephelah near Beth-Shemesh (see 1 Sam 6:9–16 ). The combination of these geographical...

Megiddo

Megiddo   Reference library

David Ussishkin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
7,828 words
Illustration(s):
2

...renewed excavations that two superimposed shrines (levels J-2 and J-3) are situated here, shrine 4050 being the upper one. A stone pavement known as the “Picture Pavement” extended up the slope reaching the earlier, level-J-2 shrine; graffiti, possibly in Egyptian style, were discerned on many stones. Later in the Early Bronze IB (level J-4/stratum XVIII), shrine 4050 was replaced by a huge temple labeled the “Great Temple,” which faced the northeastern slope of the mound. The huge edifice was 154.2 ft (47 m) long and 82 ft (25 m) wide and contained a large...

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