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Goodman's paradox

A paradox of induction (1). Suppose that someone notes that all emeralds that have ever been observed are green, and argues inductively to conclude that all emeralds are green. Now suppose ...

Goodman's paradox

Goodman's paradox n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...not Goodman) interpret this as a refutation of induction. Also called the grue paradox . Compare Hempel's paradox . [Named after the US philosopher Nelson Goodman ( 1906–98 ) who published it in an article in the Journal of Philosophy in 1946 and expanded it in 1955 in his book Fact, Fiction, and Forecast (pp....

Goodman’s paradox

Goodman’s paradox   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
225 words

...’s paradox The classical problem of induction is often phrased in terms of finding some reason to expect that nature is uniform. In Fact, Fiction, and Forecast ( 1954 ) Goodman showed that we need in addition some reason for preferring some uniformities to others, for without such a selection the uniformity of nature is vacuous. Thus, suppose that all examined emeralds have been green. Uniformity would lead us to expect that future emeralds will be green as well. But now we define a predicate grue: x is grue if and only if x is examined before...

Goodman's paradox

Goodman's paradox  

A paradox of induction (1). Suppose that someone notes that all emeralds that have ever been observed are green, and argues inductively to conclude that all emeralds are green. Now suppose we define ...
entrenchment

entrenchment  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
A predicate is entrenched if it is true as a matter of historical fact that it has been used to formulate true predictions. Goodman argued that this is the only property separating well-behaved, ...
Hempel's paradox

Hempel's paradox  

A paradox of induction (1). Suppose a researcher wishes to confirm the hypothesis that all ravens are black, using the logic of induction. The more black ravens that are observed, the more probable ...
Benny Goodman Story

Benny Goodman Story  

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Music
Hollywood biopics almost always present the same paradox: if the subject is interesting enough to make a film of his/her life, why meddle with the facts? Goodman, portrayed by Steve ...
projectibility

projectibility  

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Philosophy
A property of predicates, measuring the degree to which past instances can be taken to be guides to future ones. The fact that all the cows I have observed have been four-legged may be a reasonable ...
Nelson Goodman

Nelson Goodman  

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Philosophy
(1906–98)American philosopher. Born in Massachusetts and educated at Harvard, Goodman was an art dealer in Boston from 1929–41, and held positions at Pennsylvania and Brandeis before becoming ...
paradox

paradox  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
n. (in family therapy) a surprising interpretation or suggestion made in the course of therapy in order to demonstrate the relationship between a psychological symptom and a system of family ...
confirmation

confirmation  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The relation, in Carnap's kind of inductive logic, between evidence and hypothesis. Confirmation-judgements, according to Carnap, assess the probability of a specified hypothesis, on specified ...
uniformity of nature

uniformity of nature  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The principle that the future will resemble the past, in that when sufficiently similar situations recur, similar effects follow. The principle seems to be presupposed in some form both by the ...
Ian Hacking

Ian Hacking  

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Subject:
Philosophy
(1936– )Canadian philosopher, educated at British Columbia and Trinity College, Cambridge, and now centred in Toronto and Paris where he holds a Chair at the Collège de France. Hacking has written ...
induction

induction  

1 A form of reasoning, also called empirical induction, in which a general law or principle is inferred from particular instances that have been observed. Many people believe that this form of ...
Nathaniel Hawthorne

Nathaniel Hawthorne  

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Literature
(1804–64),American novelist and short story writer. His stories were collected in Twice‐Told Tales (1837), Mosses from an Old Manse (1846), and The Snow‐Image and Other Twice‐Told Tales (1851); he ...
grue paradox

grue paradox n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...paradox n . Another name for Goodman's paradox...

paradox

paradox n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

..., the liar paradox , or Grelling's paradox . The term is also used more loosely for any argument that yields a surprising conclusion, or even for a fact or phenomenon that seems surprising, but the latter is avoided in careful usage. See also Allais paradox , Aubert–Fleischl paradox , barber's paradox , Condorcet's paradox , duration estimation paradox , Ellsberg paradox , Fechner's paradox , Gödel's theorem , Goodman's paradox , melodic paradox , metalanguage , mirror reversal problem , modified Ellsberg paradox , Monty Hall problem , ...

entrenchment

entrenchment   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
49 words

...A predicate is entrenched if it is true as a matter of historical fact that it has been used to formulate true predictions. Goodman argued that this is the only property separating well-behaved, ‘projectible’ predicates from badly-behaved but syntactically simple predicates that can be defined. See Goodman’s paradox...

uniformity of nature

uniformity of nature   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
62 words

...recur, similar effects follow. The principle seems to be presupposed in some form both by the reliance we put upon scientific prediction and by the certainties of everyday life. Its exact formulation and justification is the problem of induction . See also Hume , Goodman’s paradox...

Goodman, Nelson

Goodman, Nelson (1906–98)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
153 words

...later writings he has expressed what appears to be a radical idealism , espousing the view that there are as many different ‘versions’ or ‘worlds’ as there are human narrative and artistic creations. Goodman’s other main works are Fact, Fiction, and Forecast ( 1954 ), Languages of Art ( 1969 ), and Ways of Worldmaking ( 1978 ). See also Goodman’s paradox...

Hempel’s paradox

Hempel’s paradox n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...they are identical in meaning, different merely in wording. Logicians agree that there is no flaw in this reasoning; the difficulty is a purely psychological one arising from misguided intuition. Also called the confirmation paradox or the raven paradox . See also confirmation bias . Compare Goodman’s paradox . [Named after the German-born US philosopher Carl (Gustav) Hempel ( 1905–97 ) who first expounded it in 1937 in the Swedish journal Theoria...

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