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Gilbert Harman

Subject: Philosophy

(1938– ). Professor of Philosophy at Princeton University, best known for contributions in the philosophy of mind, epistemology, and ethics. Although it is common to equate ...

Harman, Gilbert

Harman, Gilbert (1938– )   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
163 words

..., Gilbert ( 1938–  ). Professor of Philosophy at Princeton University, best known for contributions in the philosophy of mind, epistemology, and ethics. Although it is common to equate ‘being rational’ with ‘being logical’, Harman distinguishes these sharply. Logic provides a theory of implication relations among sentences. ‘If A then B ’, coupled with ‘ A ’, logically implies ‘ B ’. An agent's accepting the first two statements, however, does not thereby rationally oblige him to infer or accept the third. At most, reason demands acceptance of ‘ B ’ or...

Harman, Gilbert Helms

Harman, Gilbert Helms (1938–)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,003 words

..., Gilbert Helms ( 1938– ) Gilbert Harman was born on 26 May 1938 in East Orange, New Jersey. He received a BA at Swarthmore in 1960 , and a PhD at Harvard in 1964 . The title of his dissertation was “Skepticism and the Definition of Knowledge.” Harman has taught philosophy at Princeton University since 1963 , where he presently is professor of philosophy. He has earned several honors and awards, including a Guggenheim Fellowship and fellowships from the National Science Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the American Council of...

Gilbert Harman

Gilbert Harman  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1938– ).Professor of Philosophy at Princeton University, best known for contributions in the philosophy of mind, epistemology, and ethics. Although it is common to equate ‘being rational’ with ...
no false lemmas principle

no false lemmas principle  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
Principle suggested by the contemporary American philosopher Gilbert Harman in response to Gettier examples in the theory of knowledge. In such cases a person is justified in believing something ...
Judith Jarvis Thomson

Judith Jarvis Thomson  

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Overview Page
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Philosophy
(1929– ).American philosopher best known for her use of hypothetical examples to elicit intuitions that help to reveal the structure of commonsense morality. The most influential of her arguments of ...
George Armitage Miller

George Armitage Miller  

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Philosophy
(1920–)George A. Miller was born on 3 February 1920 in Charleston, West Virginia. He received his BA in 1940 and a Masters in Speech Science in 1941, both from ...
Daniel C. Dennett

Daniel C. Dennett  

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Overview Page
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Philosophy
(1942– ).Dennett's guiding idea is that of the ‘intentional stance’. We take the intentional stance towards a system—a person, a bat, a computer—when we attribute rationality to the system and ...
inference to the best explanation

inference to the best explanation  

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Overview Page
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Philosophy
Concept formulated by Princeton philosopher Gilbert Harman in his paper ‘The Inference to the Best Explanation’, Philosophical Review 74 (1965). Arguably the idea goes back to Peirce, although ...
no false lemmas principle

no false lemmas principle   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
88 words

...false lemmas principle Principle suggested by the contemporary American philosopher Gilbert Harman in response to Gettier examples in the theory of knowledge. In such cases a person is justified in believing something true, but does not know it, because the truth is somehow incorrectly connected with their evidence. Harman suggested that the incorrect connection lies in the fact that the person’s chain of reasoning passes through a false step. However, it has been argued that similar cases can be constructed in which there is no false...

inference to the best explanation

inference to the best explanation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
179 words

...to the best explanation . Accepting a statement because it is the best available explanation of one's evidence; deriving the conclusion that best explains one's premisses. According to Gilbert Harman , who uses the phrase in many publications, acceptable inductive inferences are all inferences to the best explanation. One can also use this notion in a response to scepticism . Do you know you are looking at a reference book right now rather than, say, having your brain intricately stimulated by a mad scientist? The sceptic carefully describes this...

inference to the best explanation

inference to the best explanation   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
176 words

...to the best explanation Concept formulated by Princeton philosopher Gilbert Harman in his paper ‘The Inference to the Best Explanation’, Philosophical Review 74 ( 1965 ). Arguably the idea goes back to Peirce , although Peirce’s views are not altogether easy to excavate. The idea is that when we have a best explanation of some phenomenon, we are entitled to repose confidence in it simply on that account. Sometimes thought to be the lynchpin of scientific method, the principle is not easy to formulate and has come under attack, notably since our...

inference

inference   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
687 words

...the theorems of the probability calculus . Against this, it is objected that, if true, a ‘computational explosion’ would ensue. Even cases of modest evidential complexity are ‘too complicated for mere finite beings to make extensive use of probabilities’ ( Gilbert Harman , Change in View ). Even so, Harman does seem to concede that the rules of the probability calculus might be thought of as normatively correct, that is, as rules which a human inferrer should use to the extent that he satisfies appropriate assumptions on computationally ideal reasons....

moral scepticism

moral scepticism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
844 words

...not on abstract or general normative assumptions about the adequate grounds of moral commitment or responsibility, but rather on wholly non-moral, philosophical assumptions about the possibility of any kind of objective truth or knowledge . Contemporary examples include Gilbert Harman's argument that moral judgements cannot count as objective knowledge because moral beliefs are not caused by anything in the world, and John Mackie's argument that there cannot be moral facts because moral properties would be such ‘queer’ entities. External scepticism is...

Katz, Jerrold Jacob

Katz, Jerrold Jacob (1932–2002)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,034 words

...(Lincoln, Neb., 1999). Harman, Gilbert . “ Katz’s Credo, ” Synthese 32 (1976): 387–94. Kraut, Robert . “ Metaphysical Explanation and the Philosophy of Mathematics: Reflections on Jerrold Katz’s Realistic Rationalism, ” Philosophia Mathematica 9 (2001): 154–83. Oliver, Alex . “ A Realistic Rationalism? ” Inquiry 43 (2000): 111–36. Quine, W.V. “ On a Suggestion of Katz, ” Journal of Philosophy 64 (1967): 52–4. Searle, John . “ Chomsky’s Revolution in Linguistics, ” in On Noam Chomsky: Critical Essays , 2nd edn, ed. Gilbert Harman (Amherst, Mass.,...

Unger, Peter Kenneth

Unger, Peter Kenneth (1942–)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
689 words

...of Philosophy,” in Philosophers in Conversation: Interviews from the Harvard Review of Philosophy (London and New York, 2002). Further Reading Black, Max “ An Immoderate Skepticism, Some Comment on Professor Unger’s Paper, ” Philosophic Exchange 1 (1974): 157–9. Harman, Gilbert . “ Unger on Knowledge, ” Journal of Philosophy 64 (1967): 390–95. “ Symposium on Identity, Consciousness, and Value, ” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 52 (1992): 133–76. “ Symposium on Living High and Letting Die, ” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 59...

American philosophy today

American philosophy today   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,112 words

... and Paul Churchland at the University of California at San Diego, Robert Cummins at the University of California at Davis, Fodor at Rutgers), and, more recently, in ethics ( Gilbert Harman at Princeton, Peter Railton at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor). Cummins, for example, runs a ‘philosophical lab’ under the slogan ‘no armchair philosophy allowed’, while Harman and Railton argue that ethics had better attend to what we learn from empirical psychology about the role of character in the explanation of action. With few exceptions, American...

Naturalism, Ethical

Naturalism, Ethical   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
850 words

...(1739–40). ——, An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (1752). Mill, John Stuart , Utilitarianism (1863). Moore, G. E. , Principia Ethica (Cambridge, 1903). Black, Max , ‘ The Gap Between “Is” and “Should” ’, The Philosophical Review , vol.73 (1964), pp.165–81. Harman, Gilbert , The Nature of Morality (Oxford, 1977). Rachels, James , ‘Naturalism’, in Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Ethical Theory (Oxford, 2000), pp.74–91. Williams, Bernard , Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy (Cambridge, 1985). Michael Potter See also ...

African Agency in International Politics

African Agency in International Politics   Reference library

Jonathan Fisher

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,710 words

...to donor influence: Ethiopia, aid and conditionality. Forum for Development Studies , 2 , 195–220. Brown, W. (2012). A question of agency: Africa in international politics. Third World Quarterly , 33 (10), 1889–1908. Brown, W. , & Harman, S. (2013). African agency in international politics. In W. Brown & S. Harman (Eds.), African agency in international politics . London, UK: Routledge. Buzan, B. , Jones, C. , & Little, R. (1993). The logic of anarchy: Neorealism and structural idealism . New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Carlsnaes, W. ...

Systemic Functional Linguistics in Teacher Education

Systemic Functional Linguistics in Teacher Education   Reference library

Luciana C. de Oliveira and Sharon Smith

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
11,302 words
Illustration(s):
3

...A. K. , & Matthiessen, C. M. I. M. (2014). Halliday’s introduction to functional grammar (4th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge. Harman, R. (2011). A multilayered approach to teaching writing: The agentive response of a bilingual learner in an urban school classroom. Soonchunhyang Journal of the Humanities , 30 (1), 297–337. Harman, R. (Ed.). (2018). Bilingual learners and social equity . New York, NY: Springer. Harman, R. , & Simmons, A. (2014). Critical systemic functional linguistics and literary narratives in subject English: Promoting...

Miller, George Armitage

Miller, George Armitage (1920–2012)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,746 words

...to being an extremely productive researcher and writer, Miller has been an active institution-builder and statesman for psychology. He founded the Harvard Center for Cognitive Studies with Jerome Bruner in 1960 , and founded the Princeton Cognitive Science Laboratory with Gilbert Harman in 1986 . Miller was President of the American Psychological Association in 1969 . Miller has won numerous awards, including the National Medal of Science in 1991 , and the American Psychological Association’s Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award. He was elected to...

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