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General Education Board

The General Education Board (GEB) was established in 1903 with a $1 million gift from the white industrialist and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller. The goal of the board was to ...

General Education Board

General Education Board   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
633 words

... Education Board . The General Education Board ( GEB ) was established in 1903 with a $1 million gift from the white industrialist and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller . The goal of the board was to aid education in the United States “without distinction of race, sex, or creed.” The GEB initially concentrated on improving the education of African Americans in the South. Its early work entailed grants for building and endowment of schools, colleges, and universities, and for teacher training, certification, and salaries. In order to tailor the...

General Education Board

General Education Board  

The General Education Board (GEB) was established in 1903 with a $1 million gift from the white industrialist and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller. The goal of the board was to ...
Education

Education   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,295 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...parliamentary papers and Board of Education records. See P. H. and J. H. Gibson , ‘Twentieth‐Century Archives of Education as Sources for the Study of Education Policy and Administration’, and G. Sutherland , ‘A View of Education Records in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries’, both in Archives , 15 ( 1981–2 ). See also James Craigie , A Bibliography of Scottish Education, 1872–1972 (1974). Further reorganization took place after the passing of the Education Act 1944 , which replaced the Board with a Ministry of Education and established a...

The Twentieth Century

The Twentieth Century   Quick reference

Brian M. Short

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,083 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...family historian, based primarily around the triad of poor relief, public health , and education. With the latter becoming a county council or county borough responsibility rather than one for individual school boards after the Education Act of 1902 , and poor relief in 1929 , many types of record are available. The central records of the correspondence of the Boards of Guardians with the centralized Poor Law Commission, Poor Law Board, and Local Government Board, prior to their abolition in 1929 , were mostly destroyed in the Second World War, but...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

Ian Morrison

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,163 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...works such as the Australian Dictionary of Biography ) and the University of Queensland Press (which played a leading role in promoting the work of new poets and novelists, most famously Peter Carey, David Malouf, and Michael Dransfield) became major players in both the general and education markets. Angus & Robertson continued to produce important reference works, notably the ten-volume second edition of the Australian Encyclopedia ( 1958 ), and Ferguson’s Bibliography of Australia , the seventh volume of which appeared in 1969 . The Australian branches...

Local Government

Local Government   Quick reference

R. W. Hoyle

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,202 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...commissioners, and municipal water and gas companies were all created by private Act. Typically the statute would provide for the creation of a Board of Commissioners composed of ex officio and elected members. The statute conferred on them the authority to raise a rate to undertake limited tasks. Once adopted by one town, similar powers tended to be sought by others and might finally be incorporated into a general Act which other authorities could adopt if they wished. Obviously, this pattern of proceeding tended to result in authority being divided between...

Shura and Democracy

Shura and Democracy   Reference library

Osman Fathi

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,010 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...under new and different times or places. They must not contradict any other rule in the divine sources, nor the general goals and principles of Shari’a. Many laws are required in a modern state to regulate traffic, irrigation, construction, transportation, roads, industry, currency, importing and exporting, public health, education, etc; they have only to be provided according to considerations of public interest or in the light of the general goals and principles of Shari’a. No text in the Quran or the Sunna deals specifically with all the emerging human...

42 The History of the Book in Japan

42 The History of the Book in Japan   Reference library

P. F. Kornicki

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,152 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...in Saga, near Kyoto, between 1599 and 1610 . Sagabon production in 1608: Ise monogatari (The Tales of Ise). The books were the product of a collaboration between the merchant connoisseur Suminokura Soan and the artist and calligrapher Hon’ami Kōetsu. © The British Library Board. All Rights Reserved (Or. 64.c.36) The calligraphy and artistic direction were provided by the arbiter of taste Hon’ami Kōetsu; a merchant intellectual, Suminokura Soan ( 1571–1632 ), brought the organizational skills. Together they printed mostly Japanese texts, such as the Ise...

9 Missionary Printing

9 Missionary Printing   Reference library

M. Antoni J. Üçerler

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,116 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...for the education of Malays and Chinese in Penang and to work as a printer. Samuel Dyer, Morrison’s former student and also an LMS member, arrived in Penang in 1827 . An expert in *punchcutting , he worked on a new steel typeface for Chinese characters. In Singapore, the BFBS had been printing works in Malay since 1822 , just three years after Sir Stamford Raffles founded the free trading post. There were also other mission presses that produced a variety of imprints in the 1830s and 1840s and were administered by the LMS and the American Board of...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

Scott E. Casper and Joan Shelley Rubin

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...to organize were more successful in niche publishing markets than in the general trade. The short-lived *American Book Trade Association of the 1870s , which included most of the leading publishers as well as dozens of smaller ones, sought to establish uniform discounts to vendors in an effort to regulate prices and combat ‘underselling’ by agents and retailers. In more specialized areas, consolidation reigned by the end of the century. Schoolbook publishers formed their own Board of Trade in 1870 ; after its collapse, the four largest firms created a...

Publishing

Publishing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,242 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the reading public was a development to be welcomed, especially insofar as it reflected on his own achievements. In his self-aggrandizing Memoirs ( 1791 ), Lackington commented ‘that the sale of books in general has increased prodigiously within the last twenty years’. He went on: The poorer sort of farmers, and even the poor country people in general, who before that period spent their winter evenings in relating stories of witches, ghosts, hobgoblins, &c. now shorten the winter nights by hearing their sons and daughters read tales, romances, &c. and on...

Irish Local and Family History

Irish Local and Family History   Quick reference

Kevin Whelan

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,945 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to the Board of Works material deposited in The National Archives. Among its 1 million books and 40 000 manuscripts, the material in the National Library most useful to local historians includes microfilm of Catholic parish registers ; estate papers and maps; parliamentary papers ; prints and drawings; tour books; and three principal photographic collections: the Lawrence (40 000 negatives, 1880–1914 ), Eason (4 000 negatives, 1900–40 ), and Valentine collections (3 000 negatives, 1903–60 ). The National Archives has detailed records of education, and the...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

Alexis Weedon

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,076 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...Industrialization and the consequent economic prosperity of 19 th -century Britain significantly changed the costs of book production. Steam-powered machines revolutionized printing and paper manufacture ( see 10 , 11 ). The growth in population and improvements in general welfare and education increased the market for print, and there was an unprecedented growth in output. Print was the first mass media, and in the second half of the 19 th century printed matter became ubiquitous—it was on hoardings in the street and on packaging in shops and homes ( see ...

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries   Reference library

Paul Hoftijzer

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,047 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...Lutheran minister Johann Müller , c .1710 . A *stereotype *plate (1) believed to have been made by the process invented by Johann Müller and the corresponding page of a Dutch bible printed by Müller’s sons and Samuel Luchtmans at Leiden in 1718. © The British Library Board. All Rights Reserved (C.37.l.3; C.37.l.3*) The widespread use of smaller *formats was made possible by the introduction of compact, yet highly legible roman typefaces. These *founts , cut by Christoffel van *Dijck and others, also found their way to other countries,...

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

Abhijit Gupta

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,070 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...for writing in Arabic, Persian, and Urdu ( see 38 ). The rich traditions of illumination, illustration, and *calligraphy in these languages required exceptionally high-quality paper, which sometimes had to be imported from places such as Iran. For bindings, *leather and board were used: these could not be used for Hindu MSS. Perhaps the richness and sophistication of the Mughal MS tradition was one reason why printing failed to make much impact in north India, despite the presentation to the Emperor Akbar of a copy of *Plantin ’s *polyglot Bible in...

Acts

Acts   Reference library

Loveday Alexander and Loveday Alexander

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
42,037 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and address are designed to stress the speaker's commonalty with his audience ( vv. 1–2 ), and his opening words emphasize that he, like them, is a ‘zealot for God’ ( v. 3 ) with a strict seminary education rooted in Jerusalem (which was presumably where he learnt to speak Aramaic). Both statements are consistent with Paul's own claims about his education in Gal 1:13–14 ; some scholars have argued that ‘this city’ refers to Tarsus, but this seems to make less sense of Paul's argument here. As in Gal 1:13 and Phil 3:6 , the touchstone of Paul's ‘zeal’ is...

Matthew

Matthew   Reference library

Dale C. Allison, Jr. and Dale C. Allison, Jr.

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
49,867 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...degree of virtue’ (Jerome). Calvin was right: ‘Our Lord is not proclaiming a general statement that is applicable to everyone, but only to the person with whom He is speaking.’ This passage is a call story, like those in 4:18–20; 8:18–22 ; and 9:9 . The rich man is being invited to follow Jesus in a specific situation. This circumstance determines what is asked of him. One can no more generalize v. 21 than turn 8:22 (‘leave the dead to bury their own dead’) into a general order to neglect the deceased. Moreover, the continuation in 19:22–6 shows that...

education in Northern Ireland

education in Northern Ireland  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The education system of Northern Ireland is separate and distinct from that of England and has an extremely complex structure, involving nine non‐departmental public bodies. These bodies operate ...
Business and Technology Education Council

Business and Technology Education Council  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(BTEC)An awarding body for the further education sector formed in 1974 as a result of a merger between the Business Education Council (BEC) and the Technician Education Council (TEC). It now operates ...
Association of Colleges

Association of Colleges  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(AoC)An association formed in 1996 to represent and promote the interests of general further education colleges, sixth form colleges, specialist colleges, and other tertiary institutions in England ...

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