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Galen

(129–199), Greek physician. He attempted to systematize the whole of medicine, making important discoveries in anatomy and physiology. His works became influential in Europe when ...

Galen

Galen   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... A Greek physician and philosopher of the 2nd century ad . For centuries he was the supreme authority in medicine. Hence ‘Galenist’, a follower of Galen’s medical...

Galen

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The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... , Greek physician whose work in the 2nd century ad was influential in Greece, Rome, and beyond. He identified the antiseptic properties of wine. See athenaeus and medicine . Galen : Selected Works , trans. by P. N. Singer (Oxford, 1997). ...

Galen

Galen   Reference library

Richard L. Gregory

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
318 words

... (or Claudius Galenus , 2nd century , 2nd century ad ). Greek physician , born at Pergamum in Mysia. He studied medicine there, and also at Smyrna, Corinth, and Alexandria, and became physician to Marcus Aurelius . He probably died in Sicily. Galen wrote extensively on medical and on philosophical subjects and his extant works consist of 83 treatises on medicine and 15 commentaries on Hippocrates . He dissected animals and developed, to our minds, somewhat fanciful physiological theories. His clinical discoveries include diagnosing by the pulse. He...

Galen

Galen (129–c.204/216 ce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,779 words

...some 129 works by Hunayn ibn Ishaq and colleagues ( c.850 ce ) determined the Arabic reception of Galen, which was both welcoming and critical—for instance, corrections by al-Razi on fevers in the tenth century and by al-Nafis on blood circulation in the thirteenth century. During the Renaissance, Galen's Hippocratism (Galenism) was part of the authoritative canon of books, and several Hippocratic schools existed in Europe (Holland, England), even if Galen was attacked by the maverick Paracelsus ( 1493–1541 ), with at least some justification, for obscuring...

Galen

Galen (ad 129–99)   Reference library

Andrew Dalby

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...for Galen was a fluent writer who never lost the opportunity to reminisce on country ways in Asia Minor, on student life in Alexandria, or on fine foods and wine-tastings in Rome. Several other works by Galen, such as On Good and Bad Juices and his commentaries on hippocrates ’ dietary books, include interesting references to food and wine. What is difficult is to track them down. The only full index is in Latin, in the final volume of C. G. Kuhn’s edition of his writings (20 vols, Berlin, 1821–33 ); but note also Durling ( 1993 ) . Galen tried to...

Galen

Galen   Reference library

John Scarborough

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
354 words

...work, the ancestor of so many alphabetical “Dioskorides” texts in Greek, Latin, and Arabic. Oribasios's technique in using Dioskorides side-by-side with Galen was followed by almost all later Byz. medical encyclopedists. Not only professionals but also educated Byz. (e.g., Michael Choniates ) read Galen, who was popular enough to become a comic figure in the Timarion . By the 13th–14th C., Galen had become the authority on medicine in Greek, Latin, and Arabic (see also Insanity ) . His quasi-monotheism, best seen in Use of the Parts of the Body ,...

Galen

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The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
213 words

... ( ad 129–199 ). Greek physician . Born in Pergamum, Galen studied first in the local temple of Aesculapius, then in Smyrna, Corinth, and Alexandria. He returned to Pergamum, where he practiced medicine and was appointed surgeon to the gladiators. In 161 ad he went to Rome, where, despite hostility from the citizens, his skills in diagnosis and treatment led to his introduction to many influential people, and he was soon made physician to the new emperor, Marcus Aurelius . Around 166 ad Galen returned to Pergamum but, after two years, was recalled...

Galen

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A Dictionary of Scientists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology
Length:
553 words

... ( c. 130– c. 200) Greek physician Galen was educated as a doctor supposedly because his father had a dream in which Asklepios, the god of medicine, appeared to him. After an initial period of training in his native city of Pergamum (now Bergama in Turkey), Galen spent the years 148–57 traveling and studying at Corinth, Smyrna, and Alexandria. He then returned home and took the post of surgeon to the Pergamum gladiators. Eventually Galen left for Rome where he made a considerable reputation for himself serving the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Commodus...

Galen

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A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
392 words

...career, can participate?’ Small-ball exercise could also keep all parts of the body in motion, and vary the pace of the exercise as appropriate. Galen linked the benefits not just to health: ‘You can easily understand that ball playing trains for the two most important maneuvers which a state entrusts to its generals: to attack at the proper time and to defend the booty already amassed.’ Running did not impress Galen, being too weight-reducing and having no capacity to train people in courage; he saw running as an uneven, unbalanced activity. In contrast,...

Galen

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Benjamin Morison

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
282 words

...third kind of syllogism, ‘relational syllogisms’. Galen thinks that there is a systematic or logical way of discovering the truths of medicine—i.e. the theory of demonstration. But he also concedes that experience plays a role in the acquisition of medical knowledge. It is therefore a matter of some interest what his precise position is concerning how medical knowledge is acquired, and how it relates to the schools of medicine of his time. Dr Benjamin Morison Jonathan Barnes , ‘“A Third Kind of Syllogism”—Galen and the Logic of Relations’, in R. Sharples ...

Galen

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The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
981 words

...bc ) doctor to whom a large and disparate corpus of ancient Greek medical texts was attributed. Galen attacked other doctors of the time for failing to understand what Hippocrates really meant, but this is merely rhetoric; the ‘Hippocrates’ Galen gives us is one created in the image of Galen. Galen's very personal judgements of which treatises in the Hippocratic corpus were the ‘genuine works’ of Hippocrates have influenced all subsequent work on that corpus. Galen's model of the body combined ideas from Hippocratic medicine, Plato , and Aristotle . The...

Galen

Galen (ad 129–216)(of *Pergamum)   Reference library

Ludwig Edelstein and Vivian Nutton

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,588 words

...Kühn and his Edition of Galen (1976); G. Fichtner (1990); H. Schlange-Schöningen (2003). General surveys: J. Mewaldt , RE 7. 578; V. Nutton, Ancient Medicine (2004). Biography: G. Sarton , Galen of Pergamon (1954), but weak; Medical ideas: C. R. S. Harris , The Heart and the Vascular System (1973); J. Rocca, Galen on the Brain (2004). Philosophy: P. Moraux, Der Aristotelismus bei den Griechen 2 (1984). Subsequent influence: O. Temkin, Galenism (1973). Collections of papers on Galen: V. Nutton (ed.), Galen: Problems and Prospects ...

Galen

Galen (129–c.200)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
92 words

... ( Claudius Galenus ) ( ad c. 129– c. 200 ) Perhaps the most influential of ancient physicians. He is reputed to have written some 500 treatises in Greek, several of which have survived. Translated into Latin during the 11th and 12th centuries, his writings dominated the development of medieval medicine, and in the 16th century he was also esteemed as an exponent of scientific method. Thomas Linacre translated six of his works and there are references to him in Chaucer , Francis Bacon , and Sir Thomas Browne ....

Galen

Galen (ad 129–99)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
479 words

...sheep, goats, and the Barbary ape and Rhesus monkey who most closely resemble humans—and avoided human dissection (unlike Herophilus and Erasistratus ), sometimes to the detriment of his conclusions. Galen adopted from Hippocrates' treatise On the Nature of the Human Being the view that disease was caused by imbalance of the four humours (for Galen, blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile) which affected the three main organs, heart, brain, and liver, and he used Stoic ideas of mixture to explain changes in the humours. His medicines and dietary...

Galen

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Ludwig Edelstein and Vivian Nutton

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
773 words

... , of Pergamum ( ad 129–?199/216 ) in a spectacular career rose from gladiator physician in Asia Minor to court physician in the Rome of Marcus Aurelius . The son of a wealthy architect, he enjoyed an excellent education in rhetoric and philosophy in his native town before turning to medicine. After studying medicine further in Smyrna and Alexandria, he began practising in Pergamum in 157 , and went to Rome in 162 . Driven out by hostile competitors, or fear of the plague, in 166 , he returned in 169 , and remained in imperial service until his death....

Galen

Galen (ad 129–199)   Quick reference

Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
81 words

...0 Galen ad 129 – 199 Greek physician The chief merit of language is clearness, and we know that nothing detracts so much from this as do unfamiliar terms. On the Natural Faculties bk. 1, sect. 1 merit of language is clearness merit of language is clearness unfamiliar terms If anyone wishes to observe the works of nature, he should put his trust not in books of anatomy but in his own eyes. On the Usefulness of the Parts of the...

Galen

Galen (ad 129–199)   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
117 words

... Galen ad 129 – 199 Greek physician who attempted to systematize the whole of medicine, making important discoveries in anatomy and physiology The chief merit of language is clearness, and we know that nothing detracts so much from this as do unfamiliar terms. On the Natural Faculties bk. 1, sect. 1 merit of language is clearness merit of language is clearness unfamiliar terms If anyone wishes to observe the works of nature, he should put his trust not in books of anatomy but in his own eyes. On the Usefulness of the Parts of the Body bk. 2...

Galen

Galen (129––c.216)   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
189 words

...Galen 129 – – c. 216 Graeco-Roman physician The best physician is also a philosopher. Title of one of Galen's works physician is also a philosopher The plexus called rectiform [rete mirabile] by anatomists, is the most wonderful of the bodies located in this region. It encircles the gland [the hypophysis] itself and extends far to the rear; for nearly the whole base of the encephalon has this plexus lying beneath it. It is not a simple network but [looks] as if you had taken several fisherman's nets and superimposed them. It is characteristic of this...

Galen of

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The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
721 words

... of Pergamum ( ad 129–?199/216 ) in a spectacular career rose from gladiator physician in Asia Minor to court physician in the Rome of Marcus Aurelius . The son of a rich architect, he enjoyed an excellent education in rhetoric and philosophy in his native town before turning to medicine. After studying medicine further in Smyrna and Alexandria , he began practising in Pergamum, 157 , and went to Rome, 162 . Driven out by hostile competitors, or fear of the plague , 166 , he returned in 169 , and remained in imperial service until his death. A...

Galen of Pergamum

Galen of Pergamum (ad 129–c.210)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
79 words

... of Pergamum ( ad 129– c .210 ) Famous Greek physician and anatomist , although he also wrote as a philosopher. Galen’s influence on medieval thought and medicine was second only to that of Aristotle , not so much for any philosophical doctrine but rather as an example of excellence in empirical science combined with what was taken to be an ardent religious faith. However, his philosophy has again become the focus of scholarly interest. See also four humours...

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