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Galatia

Galatia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
An ancient region in central Asia Minor, settled by invading Gauls (the Galatians) in the 3rd century bc. It later became a protectorate of Rome and then (with some further territories) a province of ...
Apostolic Council

Apostolic Council  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The Council of Jerusalem described in Acts 15 is sometimes called the Apostolic Council though it was presided over by James, brother of the Lord and not himself one of the Twelve. The account in ...
Galatia

Galatia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Celts of Continental Europe, their name is a variant of Gaul . The Galatians clung to their language and customs despite being distant from the centres of Celtic civilization. The neighbouring Greeks accommodated them by explaining that they derived from Heracles and his Gaulish lover Galata . Their country was the site of one of several shrines known as Drunemeton . Evangelized by St Paul in the Epistle to the Galatians. As late as the 5th century St Jerome reported that the language of Ancyra (Ankara) was similar to that spoken near Treves (Trier) in...

Galatia

Galatia   Reference library

William Moir Calder and Stephen Mitchell

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
593 words

...). A common council of the three tribes met at a place called Drynemeton (the word means ‘sacred oak-grove’) and tried cases of murder. The Galatians maintained their Celtic character throughout the imperial period and Celtic was still spoken in the rural districts as late as the 6th cent. ad ( see celtic languages ; celts ). (2) The name of a Roman province, formed in 25 bc from the former kingdom of the Galatian tetrarch Amyntas ( 2 ) , which comprised Galatia in the narrow sense, much of eastern Phrygia, Lycaonia , Isauria , Pisidia , and ...

Galatians, Epistle to the

Galatians, Epistle to the   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
802 words

...among them J. Calvin , but esp. exponents of the ‘S. Galatian theory’, have equated it with the journey in Acts 11: 29 f. and have thereby explained the absence of references to the ‘decrees’ of Acts 15: 20 on the hypothesis that the Epistle was written before the Council had taken place; that would be in ad 50 or a little earlier, and Galatians would then be the earliest of the Pauline Epistles. Most scholars, however, prefer a later date in the mid-50s because of the contacts with the language and subject-matter of Romans, and some reconcile Paul's...

Gala'tians

Gala'tians   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
137 words

... ( Galătae ) A Gallic, i.e. Celtic, people ( see Celts ) who crossed the Hellespont from Europe into Asia Minor in 278 bc and settled in parts of Phrygia and Cappadocia, in the area surrounding modern Ankara in central Turkey. In a Greek-speaking part of the world they maintained their tribal system and language until the sixth century ad . A warlike people, they terrorized western Asia for more than a century. Attalus I of Pergamum inflicted a notable defeat on them some time before 230 bc ( see barbarian ) and they were finally subdued in...

Celtic

Celtic   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

.... A subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. In antiquity, speakers of Celtic languages could be found in what is today Turkey (the Galatians of St Paul's letters), the Balkans, and most of central and western Europe from the Danube valley to the British Isles, including large portions of northern Italy and the Iberian peninsula. In modern times the living Celtic languages have been Irish, Scottish Gaelic, and Manx (now extinct) from the Goidelic or Q-Celtic branch, and Welsh, Cornish (now extinct), and Breton from the Brythonic, Cymric, or ...

Luther, Martin

Luther, Martin (1483–1546)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
229 words

...the monastic order and married, and devoted himself to forming the League of Protestantism. His translation of the Bible became an influence on the German language as profound as the Authorized Version on English. Thomas Cranmer 's Litany ( 1544 ), the first instalment of the Prayer Book, contains a section which derives from a litany of Luther. His commentary on St Paul 's Letter to the Galatians ( 1535 ), translated into English several times between 1575 and 1644 and highly influential, was greatly praised by John Bunyan . His popular hymn ‘Ein’...

Central Anatolia

Central Anatolia   Reference library

Karl Strobel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,721 words

...by aristocratic noblemen. They were able to integrate the much more numerous non-Galatian populations of the occupied territories into their ethnic tradition and clan-based social system and to implement their Galatian identity and their language in only two to three generations. The continental Celtic language of the Galatians as a common mother tongue is still attested in the middle of the sixth century c.e. , and in the late fourth century c.e. it was even the common language in Ancyra (modern Ankara), the metropolis of Roman central Anatolia. One can...

Galatians

Galatians   Reference library

A. Andrew Das

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
4,175 words

...flesh. Because of the Spirit’s presence, Paul can write confidently of the new behavior of the Christian even as he admonishes the Galatians to walk by the Spirit ( 5:16 ) and to keep in step with the Spirit ( 5:25 ; stoichōmen , not peripateō ; cf. 4:3 , 9 , stoicheia [“elements”]). “Keep in step” derives, ironically, from military language for soldiers standing or marching in a row following their leader. If the Galatians are looking for the rule of law, they will find all the guidance and discipline they need in the Spirit. The marching orders are...

Lycaonia

Lycaonia   Reference library

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones and Stephen Mitchell

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
359 words

...the dissolution of Cilicia the area of Derbe and Laranda was controlled by the dynast Antipater (of Macedonian stock, c. 50–36), while Iconium and the region adjoining Cilicia was assigned by Antony ( M. Antonius (2) ) first to Polemon (1) I from 39 to 36 and then to the Galatian Amyntas (2) . All of Lycaonia was included in the province of Galatia after Amyntas' death in 25 bc , although the mountainous eastern approaches were ruled by client kings ( Archelaus (5) of Cappadocia, his son Archelaus II, Antiochus (9) IV of Commagene) until the...

Celtic Languages

Celtic Languages   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,777 words

...limited use among local revivalists. The Celtic languages have been in decline for nearly two thousand years and most have vanished without obvious trace. The Continental languages survive only in place-names and Greek and Roman records. The Apostle Paul wrote in Greek to Anatolian Celts in his Epistle to the Galatians ; by the time of this letter (IC AD), the Galatians appear to have largely given up their own language. The languages of Iberia and Gaul were replaced in the early Middle Ages by Romance languages and British gave way to English from the 5c...

Pisidia

Pisidia   Reference library

Stephen Mitchell

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
299 words

...cities were able to maintain their independence from the Persians and were never effectively controlled by any of the Hellenistic kings. In the late republic Rome preferred to strike deals with individual cities rather than to exercise direct control; Amyntas (2) the Galatian was made king of Pisidia in 36 bc but the area was not thoroughly controlled until it had been included in the province of Galatia . To maintain security Augustus founded a group of ‘Pisidian’ colonies in and around the region, including Antioch (2) , Cremna, Olbasa, and...

Galatians, Paul’s letter to the

Galatians, Paul’s letter to the   Quick reference

A Dictionary of the Bible (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion
Length:
962 words

..., Paul’s letter to the In the NT, the fourth of the letters of Paul. Was this epistle written to the Churches Paul is said to have visited in Acts in the province of * Galatia , or to other unmentioned Churches in the ethnically Gallic northern part of the province, the ancient kingdom of Galatia? If the former (southern) destination is accepted, then the epistle will be the earliest of the Pauline epistles, hence the prominence in it of Barnabas, and the lack of any mention of Timothy, written perhaps in 48 ce to Churches he had evangelized; if...

Paul

Paul (5 bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,757 words
Illustration(s):
1

...regarding whether the fourteen years of Galatians 2:1 include the three years of 1:18. Evidence for this phase (and for the second phase) comes primarily from Galatians 1:13–2:14. The first phase involves activities in Arabia and Damascus and runs until the first journey to Jerusalem (1:15–18). Here Paul recalls for the Galatian churches his “former way of life in Judaism,” how he had “persecuted the church” and sought to “destroy it.” He describes himself as zealous for “the traditions of the ancestors.” Using language reminiscent of the prophetic calls of...

Celtic Languages

Celtic Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,892 words

...and some of it is strongly in dispute. No direct evidence of Galatian (Asia Minor) remains, though it survived until the 5th century CE. 2. Insular Celtic Apart from possible enclaves, Celtic speech appears to have died out on the European continent by 500 ce . In Britain, however, Celtic languages survived the Roman occupation. Scotland north of the Forth-Clyde line (the domain of the Picts) had avoided Romanization, and Ireland had not undergone Roman occupation at all. The modern Celtic languages derive from Insular Celtic (see Schmidt 1993 ). There are...

Gwalther, Rudolf

Gwalther, Rudolf (1519–1586)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
510 words

...with English bishops and others. Gwalther's works include Latin homilies on all the gospels, as well as on Acts of the Apostles, Romans, Corinthians, Galatians , and the twelve minor prophets. He also edited three volumes of the works of Zwingli and translated many of Zwingli's German works into Latin. Gwalther's famous work on the Antichrist ( Der Endtchrist , 1546 ) was translated into several languages. He wrote poems and two works on metrics. He even tried his hand at drama ( Nabal comoedia sacra , 1562 ). After his death his sermon notes on Esther,...

Celts

Celts   Reference library

Timothy Champion and Raimund Karl

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,810 words

...central and western Europe, extending their territory to northwest, southwest and eastern Europe and the Balkans around the middle of the first millennium BC, and even reaching Asia Minor in the third century BC, where they were referred to as the Galatians. They were assumed to have had a reasonably uniform language and material and immaterial culture including a shared religion and social system; and it was even suggested at times that they also were a (biological) race. It was thought that during the last centuries BC and the first millennium AD they were...

Bible, The.

Bible, The.   Reference library

Mark A. Noll

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
637 words

...sectional strife that led to the Civil War, both North and South mined the Scriptures for support. Defenders of slavery favored Old Testament passages like Leviticus 25:45, which defined conditions for servitude, while antislavery advocates favored New Testament texts like Galatians 5:1, with its paean to liberty in Christ. If anything, the Bible was more obviously at work in the popular culture of African Americans than among whites. Blacks sang and preached about Adam and Eve; Moses and the Exodus from Egypt; Daniel in the lions' den; Jonah in the belly...

Paraphrases

Paraphrases   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
936 words

...2 Peter ( 1907 ), and W. O. Carver 's paraphrase in his commentary on Ephesians ( 1949 ). F. F. Bruce published his paraphrase of Galatians in the Evangelical Quarterly ( January–March 1957 ), and of other Pauline letters in subsequent issues. In 1965 they were all published in one volume, An Expanded Paraphrase of the Epistles of Paul , together with the text of the Revised Version. In light of current modern language translations, Bruce's work appears quite conservative, hardly qualifying as a paraphrase. Romans 1.16–17 reads: “Believe me, I have...

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