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Hempel, Carl Gustav

Hempel, Carl Gustav (1905–97)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,757 words

...of Confirmation, ” Journal of Symbolic Logic 8 (1943): 122–43. “ Studies in the Logic of Confirmation, ” Mind 54 (1945): 1–26, 97–121. “ Studies in the Logic of Explanation, ” with Paul Oppenheim, Philosophy of Science 15 (1948): 135–75. “ Problems and Changes in the Empiricist Criterion of Meaning, ” Revue Internationale de Philosophie 11 (1950): 41–63. “ The Concept of Cognitive Significance: A Reconsideration, ” Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 80 (1951): 61–77. Fundamentals of Concept Formation in Empirical Science ...

Luce, Arthur Aston

Luce, Arthur Aston (1882–1977)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,489 words

..., vol. 128 (1977), pp. 11–18. Belfrage, Bertil , ‘A New Approach to Berkeley's Philosophical Notebooks ’, in Ernest Sosa (ed.), Essays on the Philosophy of George Berkeley (Dordrecht, 1987), pp. 217–30. Berman, David , George Berkeley: Idealism and the Man (1994). Laird, John , Review of Philosophical Commentaries; Generally Called the Commonplace Book: George Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne, Philosophy , vol. 20 (1945), pp. 276–7. Luce, John , ‘ Arthur Aston Luce, Curriculum vitae ’, Hermathena , vol. 128 (1977), p. 10. ——, The Luce Perspective on...

Marcus, Ruth Charlotte Barcan

Marcus, Ruth Charlotte Barcan (1921–)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,983 words

...” Journal of Philosophy 67 (1971): 187–202. “ Quantification and Ontology, ” Noûs 6 (1972): 240–50. “ Classes, Collections, and Individuals, ” American Philosophical Quarterly 11 (1974): 227–32. “ Moral Dilemmas and Consistency, ” Journal of Philosophy 77 (1980): 121–35. “ A Proposed Solution to a Puzzle about Belief, ” Midwest Studies in Philosophy 6 (1981): 501–10. “ Rationality and Believing the Impossible, ” Journal of Philosophy 75 (1983): 321–37. “Possibilia and Possible Worlds,” Grazer philosophische Studien 25/26 (1985–86): 107–32....

Harris, William Torrey

Harris, William Torrey (1835–1909)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
3,986 words

...” Journal of Speculative Philosophy 11 (1877): 265–77. Appleton’s School Readers (New York, 1878–89). “ The Definition of Social Science and the Classification of the Topics Belonging to its Several Provinces, ” Journal of Social Science 22 (June 1887): 1–7. “ The Philosophic Aspects of History, ” Papers of the American Historical Association 5 (1890): 247–54. The Aesthetic Element in Education (Milwaukee, Wisc., 1897). Further Reading Amer Nat Bio, Amer Phils Before 1950, Appleton’s Cycl Amer Bio, Bio 20thC Phils, Cambridge Dict Amer Bio, Comp...

Life

Life   Reference library

William P. Brown

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
6,127 words

...5 ; 17:2–7 ; 19:11–12 ; 24:16 ). Particularly notorious is the strict enforcement of the ban ( ḥērem ), in which a foreign or idolatrous city is devoted to utter destruction, including women, children, and livestock (e.g., Lev 27:28–29 ; Deut 13:17 ; 1 Sam 15:21 ), “anything that breathes” ( Deut 20:16 ; Josh 11:11 , 14 ). Enforcement of the ban was a way of safeguarding the orthodox community from contact with religious practices considered abominable and guarding against self-enrichment from the spoils of war (but see Deut 20:10–14 ; 21:10...

Forgiveness and Reconciliation

Forgiveness and Reconciliation   Reference library

James Alfred Loader

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
6,099 words

...scholarship. Its value is nevertheless that it highlights fundamental aspects of reconciliation, such as God as the sole subject (also in Rom 5:1011 , where God is the grammatical object of katēllagēmen tō theō ), that it was achieved by the death of Jesus, that it is relational, and that it is vital in the Pauline Epistles ( Rom 5:811 ; 11:15 ) and deutero-Pauline Epistles ( Eph 2:12–17 ; Col 1:20–22 ). But it fails to show why reconciliation is the umbrella for the concept-cluster and not atonement. The opposite is defended by Ernst Käsemann...

Salvation

Salvation   Reference library

James W. Thompson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
4,749 words

...(cf. Rom 5:6 , 8 ; 14:15 ; 1 Cor 8:11 ; 2 Cor 5:14 ; Gal 2:20 ). This creedal statement suggests that the death of Christ has rescued believers from sin and its consequences. Paul holds the apocalyptic view that the present aeon is under the power of the interlocking forces of sin (cf. Rom 1:18–3:20 ; 5:12–21 ), the flesh ( Rom 7:5 ; 7–25 ; Gal 5:13–21 ), and death ( Rom 5:12–14 ; 6:9; 1 Cor 15:21 , 26 , 54–56 ) and assumes the presence of malevolent spirits that are hostile to God (cf. Rom 8:38 ; 1 Cor 2:6–8 ; 2 Cor 4:4 ; ...

Flesh

Flesh   Reference library

Pieter Botha

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
3,193 words

...flesh and spirit is described by Paul as a war ( Rom 8:5–17 ; Gal 5:16–24 ). The seriousness of the struggle is indicated by the fact that the mind-set of the flesh leads to death ( Rom 8:6 ), and that those “living in the flesh” cannot please God ( Rom 8:8 ). Accounts of this conflict are vivid in contexts where Paul is describing the demands of the law on the one hand ( Rom 7:4 , 711 ; Gal 5:2–5 ) and its impotence to enable the believer to meet them on the other ( Rom 8:3 ; Gal 3:10–12 ). Expositions of this conflict have tended to follow...

Formation

Formation   Reference library

James W. Thompson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
3,292 words

...), while in other instances the Spirit is the power at work ( Rom 8:1–11 ; Gal 5:22 ). He shares with Aristotle and the Stoics the concern to overcome the passions (cf. Rom 1:18—3:20 ; 6:12–23 ; 7:7–25 ), but he insists that God’s Spirit empowers the community to do the will of God ( Rom 8:1–11 ). Other witnesses. Formation is a major focus of the other New Testament witnesses. The author of Hebrews indicts his readers because of their inability to understand advanced instruction ( 5:12 ). Using imagery that was commonplace in discussions of education...

Grace and Mercy

Grace and Mercy   Reference library

Cilliers Breytenbach

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
5,299 words

...that the charis coming from God (cf. Rom 5:15 ) increases with the sin or trespasses of humans and supersedes it, is fundamental to Paul’s argument in Romans 5:15—6:2 . A similar underlying assumption is absent from the backdrop of Roman benefactor ideology. The notion that divine grace surpasses human sin is, however, abundantly present in the Psalms (on the following, cf. LXX Ps 5:8 ; 6:5 ; 24:6–7 ; 30:20 ; 31:10 ; 32:5 ; 35:6 , 8 , 11 ; 56:11 ; 68:17 ; 117:1–5 ; 102:17 ; 107:5 ). In the Old Greek translations of the Psalms, ḥsd ...

Romans

Romans   Reference library

Cilliers Breytenbach

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
3,212 words

...on Christ’s death (e.g., 1:3 ; 3:25 ; 4:25 ; 5:6 , 8 ; 8:3 , 32 ; 15:14 ) or resurrection ( 4:24 ; 8:11 ; 10:9 ) as bases for his argument. He made extensive use of Greek translations of the Hebrew scriptures, quoting key passages in support of the gospel he mediated (cf. Rom 1:17c ; 2:6 , 24 ; 3:4b , 10–18 ; 4:3 , 78 , 17a , 18b , 23 ; 7:7 ; 8:36 ; 9:7b , 9b , 12–13 , 15 , 17 , 20b , 25–29 , 33 ; 10:58 , 11 , 13 , 15b , 16b , 18–21 ; 11:2–4 , 810 , 26–27 , 34–35 ; 12:19–20 ; 13:9 ; 14:11 ; 15:3b , 9b–12 , 21...

Spirit

Spirit   Reference library

John R. Levison

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
5,084 words

...realities: divine energy and presence (e.g., Ps 139:7 ); the human core (e.g., Ps 77:6 ); breath (e.g., Isa 40:7 ); the waxing and waning of life itself ( Judg 15:19 ; Ezek 10:17 ; Job 34:14 ); a disposition, as in “spirit of whoredom” ( Hos 4:12 ); an angelic being (e.g., Ps 104:4 ); a demonic being (e.g., 1 Sam 16:16 ); and wind (e.g., Num 11:31 ). While Hebrew literature, for example, plays upon the overlap between spirit and wind ( Num 11:17 , 31 ; Ps 104:4 ) or breath and spirit ( Isa 40:7 ), contemporary translators are compelled...

Poverty, Voluntary

Poverty, Voluntary   Reference library

Daniele Pevarello

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
2,411 words

...; 109 ). Jewish Wisdom literature is more direct in denouncing the ethical setbacks posed by unrighteous financial gain, which enslaves the wealthy to their greed (cf. Prov 16:8 and 28:6 ; Eccl 5:10–12 ; cf. Sir 31:57 ). These texts, however, are equally critical of the ethical implications of poverty, which they ascribe to laziness and recklessness (cf. Prov 6:6–11 and 10:4 ). Renunciation of wealth seems to have been part of Jewish practice among Jewish sectarian groups, as demonstrated by the Community Rule , a text from the Dead Sea Scrolls...

Sin

Sin   Reference library

Marius Nel and Friedrich Wilhelm Horn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
6,638 words

...before Jews in John 8 and his disciples in John 15–16 . In these speeches John addresses Jewish unbelief and the world’s unbelief that Jesus is God’s messenger, characterizing it as slavery ( John 8:31–36 ), blindness ( 9:39–41 ), self-love ( 15:19 ), self-honor ( 5:41 , 44 ; 7:18 ), but especially hatred against Jesus and against his followers ( 3:20 ; 7:7 ; 15:18–25 ). The extreme statement in this context is the charge that his opponents are children of the devil (that is, deriving their behavior from the “father” of sin, 8:38 , 41 , 44 ). Thus,...

Amos

Amos   Reference library

Jörg Jeremias

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
4,513 words

...addressed nearly two centuries earlier (e.g., 2:4–5 , 10–12 ; 5:25–26 ; 8:13–14 ) ( Schmidt, 1965 , pp. 169–183). Additionally God gave the people of Judah many possibilities to repent that they did not use ( 4:6–11 ); thus the community has to know that the destruction of Jerusalem is not the end of God’s judgment ( 4:12 ; 8:11–12 ; 9:710 ). Yet there are many hints that long before the Judean exile the words of Amos were actualized for the inhabitants of Judah in the seventh century (e.g., 6:1 : “Zion”; 8:4–7 , deception in bargaining, whose closest...

Psalms

Psalms   Reference library

J. Kenneth Kuntz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
6,056 words

...portions of this poetry were cast in the first-person singular (see Ps 44 ). Since these psalms were sparked by times of national crisis, surely several responded to the Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem in 586 b.c.e . Psalm 74:3–8 depicts Jerusalem’s ruin (e.g., “they [the enemy] set your sanctuary on fire,” v. 7 ) and Psalm 137 recalls an earlier time when the faithful gathered in Zion, not “by the rivers of Babylon” ( v. 1 ). Individual Songs of Thanksgiving. Surely the life experiences of human beings in biblical times included occasions for...

Monarchy

Monarchy   Reference library

Steed Vernyl Davidson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
3,713 words

...monarchy ideas of the divine kingship continue and serve as the dominant notion relating to governance. To be sure, the divine kingship is not a form of theocracy but a theological conceit ( Ps 10:16 ; 24:710 ; 29:1011 ; Isa 33:20–22 ; 43:15 ). The idealized future leader is closely related to the divine kinship ( Isa 9:6–7 ; 11:1–5 ; 32:1–8 ; Mic 5:2–5 ). Seemingly a response to the inadequacies of actual monarchs, the ideal future king ushers in an era of justice and righteousness. While this concept emerges prior to the destruction of the...

Matthew

Matthew   Reference library

Ulrich Luz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
4,539 words

...your cloak as well” ( 5:39b–40 ). Similar radical cases are found elsewhere in the gospel; for example, the unconditional prohibition “do not judge, so that you may not be judged” ( 7:1 ) or the command to forgive a sinner not 7 but 77 times (or even 70 times 7) ( 18:22 ). Radical general principles supplement these radical exemplary demands, such as the uncompromising “you cannot serve God and mammon” ( 6:24 ). The radical character of such demands has led many to the conclusion that “to obey everything that I have commanded you” ( 28:20a ) is an impossibility...

Tschirnhaus, Ehrenfried Walther von

Tschirnhaus, Ehrenfried Walther von (1651–1708)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century German Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,054 words

...7/G (1977). ———, ‘Ein Ketzerspiegel: Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus (1651–1708)’, in Eduard Winter, Ketzerschicksale (Berlin, 1979), pp. 164–83. Wollgast, Siegfried , ‘ Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus und die deutsche Frühaufklärung ’ (Berlin, 1988). Wurtz, Jean-Paul , ‘ Tschirnhaus et l'accusation de spinozisme: la polémique avec Christian Thomasius ’, Revue Philosophique de Louvain , vol. 78 (1980), pp. 489–506. ———, ‘Über einige offene oder strittige, die Medicina Mentis von Tschirnhaus betreffende Fragen’, Studia Leibnitiana , vol. 20...

Luke–Acts

Luke–Acts   Reference library

Robert C. Tannehill

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
6,123 words

...The objection to Jesus’s mission to tax collectors and sinners reappears in 7:34 and 15:1–2 . In the latter case Jesus defends his mission with an extensive series of parables. He also accepts and defends a woman “who was a sinner” in 7:36–50 . Furthermore, Jesus ministered to persons with an “unclean spirit” ( Luke 4:33 , 36 ; 6:18 ; 8:29 ; 9:42 ), and his followers continue this ministry in Acts ( 5:16 ; 8:7 ). Jesus also restores lepers to society ( Luke 5:12–16 ; 17:11–19 ). The latter passage features a Samaritan leper, a person with a double...

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