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44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,048 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...grew from 77,000 to 538,000; New South Wales from 178,000 to 350,000; South Australia from 63,000 to 126,000; Queensland from 8,000 to 30,000. Tasmania, however, flat-lined; the end of convict transportation in 1855 combined with the pull of the mainland goldfields to cancel out any population growth from free settlers. Universities, too, were being established—at Sydney ( 1851 ), Melbourne ( 1853 ), Adelaide ( 1874 ), and Tasmania ( 1890 )—although higher education remained the exclusive preserve of a tiny minority until well into the 20 th century,...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...synonymous with Third Republic ideology, the Tour de la France par deux enfants by ‘ G. Bruno ’ (nom de plume of Mme Alfred Fouillée). Published by Belin in 1877 and read by generations of schoolchildren, it sold more than 8 million copies over the course of a century. Another popular genre of the pre- 1914 period, detective fiction, was born in 1866 , when Émile Gaboriau’s L’Affaire Lerouge was serialized in Le Soleil . Its leading exponents in the early 20 th century were Maurice Leblanc (his hero, Arsène Lupin, described as a ‘gentleman...

Virgil

Virgil   Quick reference

Don P. Fowler and Peta G. Fowler

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
6,361 words

...standard). Poem 6 opens with a ‘proem in the middle’ (cf. G. B. Conte , YCIS 1992 , 147–59) which echoes the opening of Callimachus ' Aetia and establishes the pastoral deductum carmen , ‘fine-spun song’, as the equivalent to Callimachus' ‘slender muse’ ( Ecl . 6. 5, cf. 6. 8). At the end of the collection, Gallus gives in to love (10. 69), the poet rises from his pastoral ease in the shade (75–6), and the goats are told to go home, now fed to satiety (77). As this suggests, the Eclogues are highly ‘artificial’ and metaliterary, and the...

Virgil

Virgil (70–19 bc)   Reference library

Don P. Fowler and Peta G. Fowler

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
7,604 words

...A. B. Mynors (1990); (bk. 4 only) A. Biotti (1994). Aeneid : bks. 1, 2, 4, 6, R. G. Austin (1971, 1966, 1955, 1977); bks. 2, 3, 7 and 11, N. M. Horsfall (2008, 2006, 2000, 2003); bks. 3 and 5, R. D. Williams (1962, 1960); bk. 4, A. S. Pease (1935); bk. 6, E. Norden , 3rd edn. (1926, Ger.); bks. 7 and 8, C. J. Fordyce (1977); bk. 8, P. T. Eden (1975); K. W. Gransden (1976); bk. 9, P. R. Hardie (1994), J. Dingel (1997); bk. 10, S. J. Harrison (1991); bk. 11, K. W. Gransden (1991); bk. 12, R. Tarrant (2012). See also appendix vergiliana ...

heterosexuality

heterosexuality   Reference library

Holt N. Parker

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
955 words

...for defloration early in marriage (for Rome, Priapea ed. A. Baehrens , PLM 3. 78; Sen. Controv. 1. 2. 22; Mart. 11. 78). Receiving fellatio was especially prized (Mart. 9. 67) but also presented as more necessary to older men (Suet. Tib. 44–45; Mart. 3. 75, 4. 50) and a speciality of older women (Hor. Epod. 8.19–20; Anth. Pal. 5.38). Cunnilingus was most vile and degrading to the giver (Ar. Eq. 1280–9, Vesp. 1280–3; Gal. 12. 249 Kühn; Mart. 11. 61). Reproduction was controlled through infant exposure, contraception, and abortion ....

botany

botany   Reference library

John Scarborough

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,456 words

...imported exotics, and Homer's flowers are likewise local, e.g. the saffron crocus ( Il. 14. 348 : Crocus sativus L.), galingale ( Il. 21. 351 ; Od. 4. 603 : Cyperus longus L.), lotus ( Il. 14. 348 : Lotus corniculatus L.), the bluebell ( Il. 14. 348 : Cyclamen graecum Link), the asphodel ( Od. 11. 359 , 24. 13: Asphodelus ramosus L.), the laurel or bay ( Od. 9. 183 : Laurus nobilis L.), and others. Homer mentions the opium poppy and its sleep-inducing latex ( Il. 8. 306–7 ; Od. 4. 220–30 : Papaver somniferum L.), but the poet...

Euclid

Euclid   Reference library

G. J. Toomer and Reviel Netz

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
839 words

...). (4) Two treatises on music, Section of the Canon and Harmonic . The Euclidean authorship of these is disputed Editions Euclidis Opera Omnia , ed. J. L. Heiberg and H. Menge (with Lat. trans.), 8 vols. (Teubner, 1883–1916): 1–5 (rev. E. S. Stamatis, 1969–77), Elements (with scholia); 6, Data (with Marinus' commentary); 7. optical works; 8, Phaenomena , musical works, and fragments; a supplement by M. Curtze (1899) contains the medieval Latin translation of an-Nayrīzī (Anaritius). For the musical works see also Musici Scriptores Graeci , ed....

Birth and Reproduction

Birth and Reproduction   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,764 words

...and neonatal mortality are generally assumed to be high, but as Tim G. Parkin has argued, estimates of death rates are difficult—if not impossible—to establish. In Greece, the parturient and all those present at the birth were considered polluted (Cyrene cathartic law Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum 9.72 = Sokolowski 115, lines 16–20; Euripides Electra 654). After the birth, the midwife cut the umbilical cord ( Diseases of Women 1.46 = Littré 8.106; Aristotle, History of Animals 7.10, 587a; Soranus , Gynecology 2.6), and inspected the baby for...

Musical Instruments

Musical Instruments   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
544 words

...VII Porphyrogennetos ( De cer . 379.7, 381.11) are cited cheirokymbalon (cymbal) and pandoura (lute); in a 14th-C. ceremonial book (pseudo-Kod. 172.9–20), anakara (cymbals) as well as horns and trumpets made of silver; Libystros and Rhodamne (ed. J. Lambert , p.315.3168) adds seistron (metallic rattle) and boukinon (trumpet). The distinction between some of these terms is unclear. Pictorial data are provided mostly by mythological scenes (flutes, harps, cymbals, etc.); by the illustrations of the Psalms (e.g., Cutler , Aristocratic Psalters ...

Virgil

Virgil (70–19)   Reference library

Don P. Fowler and Peta G. Fowler

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
6,820 words

...standard). Poem 6 opens with a ‘proem in the middle’ (cf. G. B. Conte , YClS 1992 , 147–59) which echoes the opening of Callimachus Aetia and establishes the pastoral deductum carmen , ‘fine-spun song’, as the equivalent to Callimachus’ ‘slender muse’ ( Ecl. 6. 5, cf. 6. 8). At the end of the collection, Gallus gives in to love (10. 69), the poet rises from his pastoral ease in the shade (75–6), and the goats are told to go home, now fed to satiety (77). As this suggests, the Eclogues are highly ‘artificial’ and metaliterary, and the relation...

languages: Slavic

languages: Slavic   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
3,630 words

...South Slavic territory from the 11th through 17th centuries. Increasing use of written Bulgarian and Macedonian is found in the 18th century with official codification coming only at the end of the 19th and middle of the 20th centuries, respectively. The earliest dated East Slavic text is in Rusian Church Slavonic from 1056–7 (Cyrillic), although a *Novgorod find from 2000 (portions of Psalms 75 [76], 76 [77], and 67 [68] in the Cyrillic alphabet on three wax tablets) has been ascribed to the first two decades of the 11th century. *Birchbark documents,...

Numbers

Numbers   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
546 words

...was based on the Pythagorean-Platonic and Jewish traditions in which mysticism and arithmetic went hand in hand. Numbers as ideas were the principles of all things: “everything is number”, according to Pythagoras ( Aristotle , Metaph. , A 5, 985b). God had “regulated all things by number, weight and measure” (Wis 11, 20); “thoughts of the Creator”, numbers were immaterial, eternal ( Plato , Rep. , 525c, d), nervous systems of all creation: “Suppress numbers in everything, and all perishes” ( Augustine , Lib. arb. , II, 16, 42). The dual...

Ovid

Ovid (43 bc–ad 17)   Reference library

Stephen E. Hinds

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
4,133 words

... F. Bömer (1969–86, addenda 2006); (1–10) W. S. Anderson (1972–96); (1) A. G. Lee (1953); (8) A. S. Hollis (1970); (11) A. H. F. Griffin (1997); (13) N. Hopkinson (2000). Fast. F. Bömer (1957–8); (T) J. G. Frazer (1929); (1; comm. only) S. J. Green (2004); (2) M. Robinson (2010); (4) E. Fantham (1998); (6; comm. only) R. J. Littlewood (2006). Tr. G. Luck (1967–77); (2) J. Ingleheart (2010). Pont. (1, T) J. F. Gaertner (2005); (2) L. Galasso (1995); (1–2; comm. only) M. Helzle (2003); (4. 1–7, 16; comm. only) M. Helzle (1989)....

fate

fate   Reference library

Noel Robertson and B. C. Dietrich

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,567 words

...the idea of a personal Moira or Aisa (who lacked cult) was already familiar to Homer and Hesiod as an agent that binds its victim, overcomes him, or leads him to his death ( Od. 11. 292; Il. 18. 119, 13. 602). The imagery reflects funeral inscriptions, as does the concept of Moira, Aisa, or the Klothes as spinners of fate ( Il. 24. 209–11, 20. 127 f.; Od. 7. 196–8; cf. the related popular notions of the weaving and singing of fate). The Moira that, together with Zeus and Erinys, cast confusion into Agamemnon's mind also suggests a cultic origin (...

Women

Women   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,901 words

...pregnant (as in images of the Visitation), have some semblance of natural shape. From the 7th to 11th C., however—with the exception of dissolute women, and dancers on such objects as crowns —women's bodies are either masked entirely by their clothing or are parodies of human form (e.g., martyrs in the Menologion of Basil II , p.390). Thereafter all attempts to depict women as such disappear: in the illustrated homilies of James of Kokkinobaphos (Hutter, infra , fig.11) one of the Virgin's midwives displays a breast on her back. Like males, female nudes ...

epigraphy, Greek

epigraphy, Greek   Reference library

Pleket Henri Willy

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
5,673 words

...Kalinka and R. Heberdey : Lycia, Pisidia, 1901–41); 4. 1 (F. K. Dörner: Nicomedia and the Bithynian peninsula, (1978); 5. 1–2 (P. Herrmann: NE and NW Lydia, 1981–9) and 5.3 (G. Petzl: Philadelpheia, 2007). 15. MAMA 1–10 (1928–93). 16. IK. So far 51 cities have been covered, some in more than one vol. 17. So far appeared IGLS 1–2, 3. 1, 3. 2, and 4–5 (by L. Jalabert and R. Mouterde); 6–7 (by J.-P. Rey-Coquais); 8. 3 (by J. F. Breton); 11 (Mount Hermon, by J. Aliquot); 13. 1 (Bostra, by M. Sartre) and 21 ( Inscriptions de la Jordanie 2, by P.-L. Gatier and...

Ovid

Ovid (43 bce – 17 ce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
7,186 words

...often turning on thematic reversal, punctuate the collection (1.11–12; 2.2–3, 78, 11–12, 13–14) and even articulate the stages of the affair across books (e.g., 1.4 and 2.5, 2.4 and 3.7, 2.19 and 3.4). Ovid frames the Amores as a literary project inspired by Virgil (1.1.1 ˜ 3.15.7) and contemporary Roman elegy (1.1–3 ˜ 3.12, 14, 15, echoing Propertius 1.1 ˜ 3.24–25). Even in individual books of the Amores , moreover, Ovid embeds the amatory narrative within programmatic statements (1.1 ˜ 1.15, 2.1 ˜ 2.18, 3.1 ˜ 3.15) that reveal the extent to which he...

heterosexuality

heterosexuality   Reference library

Holt N. Parker

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,164 words

...for defloration early in marriage (for Rome, Priapea ed. A. Baehrens , PLM 3. 78; Sen. Controv. 1. 2. 22; Mart. 11. 78). Receiving fellatio was especially prized (Mart. 9. 67) but also presented as more necessary to older men (Suet. Tib. 44–45; Mart. 3. 75, 4. 50) and a specialty of older women (Hor. Epod. 8.19–20; Anth. Pal. 5.38). Cunnilingus was most vile and degrading to the giver ( Ar. Eq. 1280–9, Vesp. 1280–3; Gal. 12. 249 Kühn; Mart. 11. 61). Reproduction was controlled through infant exposure, contraception, and abortion ....

historiography, Roman

historiography, Roman   Reference library

Christopher Brendan Reginald Pelling

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,055 words

...supporting detail. Writers do discuss the reliability of questionable material, with varying critical acumen (e.g. Livy 2. 21, 6. 1, 38. 56–7; Tac. Ann. 4. 1011, 13. 20); Livy 's predecessors aspired to find out new facts as well as provide a new artistic veneer (pref. 2). There was no clear distinction between antiquarianism and historiography at least in the 2nd cent. bc , and even later writers show some respect for documentary sources, e.g. C. Licinius Macer and Q. Aelius Tubero with the ‘linen books’, and perhaps Tacitus (2) with the...

botany

botany   Reference library

John Scarborough

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,728 words
Illustration(s):
1

...imported exotics, and Homer’s flowers are likewise local, e.g. the saffron crocus ( Il . 14. 348 : Crocus sativus L.), galingale ( Il . 21. 351 ; Od . 4. 603 : Cyperus longus L.), lotus ( Il . 14. 348 : Lotus corniculatus L.), the bluebell ( Il . 14. 348 : Cyclamen graecum Link), the asphodel ( Od . 11. 359 , 24. 13: Asphodelus ramosus L.), the laurel or bay ( Od . 9. 183 : Laurus nobilis L.), and others. Homer mentions the opium poppy and its sleep-inducing latex ( Il. 8. 306–7 ; Od . 4. 220–30 : Papaver somniferum L.), but the poet...

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