You are looking at 1-20 of 79 entries  for:

  • All: G5; G7; G8; G10; G11; G20; G77 x
  • Archaeology x
clear all

View:

Human Evolution, Theories of

Human Evolution, Theories of   Reference library

Richard G. Delisle, Peter Andrews, Leslie C. Aiello, Melanie Lee Chang, Susan Cachel, Nicholas Toth, Kathy Schick, and Melanie Lee Chang

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
13,362 words

...“australopithecine-like Homo ” because these fossils are similar to preceding forms except for their increased brain sizes (30.51–47.77 cu. in., or 500–750 cc). The fossil sample of Homo habilis encompasses enough variation that some paleoanthropologists believe it includes more than one species. This diversity is most striking when comparing two specimens from Koobi Fora, Kenya—KNM-ER 1470 (1.8 million BP) and KNM-ER 1813 (1.7 million BP)—both recovered by Richard Leakey. KNM-ER 1470 has a large brain (48.82 cu. in., or 800 cc) and large teeth, while KNM-ER...

Fortifications in the Bronze and Iron Age

Fortifications in the Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Kyle H. Keimer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,828 words

..., 22:15 , 25:7 ; Josh 20:4 ; Ruth 4:1–12 ; 2 Sam 19:8 ; 1 Kgs 22:10 ; Jer 36:10 , 38:7 ; Amos 5:10 ; Neh 8:1, 3 ). The gates at Lachish (stratum III) and Dan (stratum III) had inner and/or outer plazas lined with shops where economic transactions took place (cf. 1 Kgs 20:34 , 2 Kgs 7:1 ). Watering troughs appear in many gates (e.g., Gezer VIII), as does evidence for cultic activity such as standing stones, ritual vessels, and deposits of ashes and burnt animal bones (Dan III–II, Bethsaida 5; cf. 2 Kgs 23:8 ; Ezek 8:3 , 5 ; 16:24 , 31...

Death and Burial, Bronze and Iron Age

Death and Burial, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Elizabeth Bloch Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,612 words

...alike, is evident in their veneration and designation as ע ělōhîm (“divinities”) (e.g., 1 Sam 28:13 , Isa 8:19 ) and qědôšîm (“holy ones”) ( Ps 16:3 ) with their consequent receipt of offerings and tithes ( Ps 16:3–4 , Deut 26:14 , Isa 57:7 ). Their presumed ability to help the living warranted attending to the dead. For example, the deceased Samuel and “ghosts and familiar spirits” of Isaiah foretold the future ( 1 Sam 28:15–19 , Isa 8:19–20 ). Elisha’s bones revived a dead man ( 2 Kgs 13:21 , a reprise of 2 Kgs 4:31–35 )....

Corn, Oil, and Wine Production

Corn, Oil, and Wine Production   Reference library

Rafael Frankel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
7,874 words

...by music and song, and it was associated with religious ritual and sometimes with serious discussion. It is described vividly in Amos 6:4–7 (but see also Isa 5:11–12 , Jer 16:8 ). Ugaritic and other early sources have shown that the marzēah was a social organization connected to ceremonial banquets of wine. The literal meaning of liškāh , the term used for the chambers around the temple courtyard (e.g., Ezek 40:17 , Neh 13:9 , 1 Chr 9: 26 ), was “drinking hall”; that use is illustrated in the incident of Jeremiah and the Rechabites ( Jer ...

Tell Hesban

Tell Hesban   Reference library

Øystein S. LaBianca and Jeffrey P. Hudon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,403 words

...victories over Ammonite, Moabite, and Aramean forces ( 2 Sam 8:2 , 8:6 , 8:12 , 8:14 , 10:1—11:1 , 12:26–31 ; 1 Chr 18:2 , 19:1—20:3 ). Hesban and the surrounding region came under Israelite hegemony after a pitched military engagement east of Madaba ( 1 Chr 19:7 ). The discovery of a very large rock-hewn reservoir, dated to the tenth century b.c.e. (Iron Age IIA) by its excavators at Hesban, has been equated with one of the “pools of Heshbon” spoken of poetically in Song of Solomon 7:4 . However, research and discussion about Iron-Age royal...

Gender, Bronze and Iron Age

Gender, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Mayer I. Gruber

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,502 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Judges 5 , where Deborah, Jael, and even the mother of Sisera are given the key roles in a victory whose formal phase consisted entirely of armies of men (also 1 Sam 8:11–12 ). However, this involvement is unusual, a point made clear in the prose of Judges 4. The more typical pattern is described in 1 Samuel 17—18 . There, the clan of Saul snares the three oldest sons of Jesse of Bethlehem. Later, after David unexpectedly becomes the hero of several battles, he encounters female musicians. Exodus 15:20 , Judges 11:34 , and 1 Samuel 18:6–7 , 21:12b...

Caesarea

Caesarea   Reference library

Joseph Patrich

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,858 words
Illustration(s):
1

...from Caesarea Maritima.” ʾ Atiqot 8 (1968): 1–37. Holum, Kenneth G. “Caesarea—The Combined Caesarea Expeditions Excavations, Area TP.” In The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land , suppl. vol. 5, edited by Ephraim Stern , pp. 1665–1668. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 2008. Holum, Kenneth G. , and Avner Raban . “Caesarea.” In The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land , edited by Ephraim Stern , pp. 270–272, 282–286. Jerusalem: Carta, 1993. Holum, Kenneth G. , Avner Raban , and Joseph...

Beth-Shean, Roman and Byzantine Period

Beth-Shean, Roman and Byzantine Period   Reference library

Gabriel Mazor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,955 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The 26 ft (8 m) wide, basalt-paved street was flanked by 16 ft (5 m) wide porticoes supported by 22.6 ft (6.9 m) high Corinthian columns erected over pedestals, plus 10 ft (3 m) wide shops on both sides. At mid-length a round square of 171 ft (52 m) diameter was adorned by a round portico, shops, and a decorative monumental column at its center (Pl. 1:19). The square incorporated various streets: Valley Street entered the square in the southwest and exited in the northeast. Another colonnaded street reached it from the southeastern city gate (Pl. 1:7, Gerasa...

Ekron

Ekron   Reference library

David Ben-Shlomo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,508 words
Illustration(s):
1

...record. History and Textual Records. Ekron is mentioned in the Bible as one of the Philistine Pentapolis cities (e.g., Josh 13:2–3 , 15:11 , 15:45–46 , 19:43 ; Judg 1:18 ; 1 Sam 7:14 ) and especially as the northern border of the territory of Judah. This probably reflects a late Iron-Age reality. In the story of the capture of the Ark of the Covenant, the ark is transferred to Ekron after it creates havoc at the city of Ashdod ( 1 Sam 5:10 ) and the Ekronites decide to return it. In the story of David and Goliath, the Israelites are described as...

Roman Province of Asia

Roman Province of Asia   Reference library

Alan H. Cadwallader

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
9,811 words

...and Cappadocia. The Asian regions continued to hold meaningful identities both to their inhabitants and to others (sometimes by aspersion). Phrygia, especially, received generalizing recognitions (cf. Acts 2:10 ; Sib. Or. 1.196–1igr98), though rarely neutral or favorable (Martial, Epigr. 11.104; Tertullian, An. 20; cf. Pliny, Nat. 8.74.196). Phrygia late in the second century c.e. gained notoriety through the rise of the Montanist (in part an independence) movement. The republican period of the province was often marked by predatory Roman...

Beth-Shemesh

Beth-Shemesh   Reference library

Dale W. Manor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,871 words

...College, 1929. Grant, Elihu . Rumeileh Being Ain Shems Excavations (Palestine) , pt. 3. Biblical and Kindred Studies 5. Haverford, Pa.: Haverford College, 1934. Grant, Elihu , and G. Ernest Wright . Ain Shems Excavations (Palestine) , pt. 4. Pottery . Biblical and Kindred Studies 7. Haverford, Pa.: Haverford College, 1938. Grant, Elihu , and G. Ernest Wright . Ain Shems Excavations (Palestine) , pt. 5. Text . Biblical and Kindred Studies 8. Haverford, Pa.: Haverford College, 1939. The series of excavation reports from Grant culminates in his collaboration...

Herodian Jericho

Herodian Jericho   Reference library

Jürgen K. Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,624 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and exploit the natural riches, but the city also served from Gabinius on as administrative center of one of seven toparchies (districts) in Judea (Josephus, B.J. 1.170, 3.54–55) and as residence of many administrators ( Sir 24:14 , Luke 19:1–10 ) and priestly families ( 1 Macc 16:11–17 , m. Pesaḥ. 4:8 , b. Ta ʾ an. 27a). It is also likely that at least a large part of the oasis and its surroundings were crown property. Jericho’s crops were famous, above all special date brands and balsam (Pliny, Nat. 6.14, 13.44; Josephus, B.J. 1.138f,...

Gath

Gath   Reference library

Aren Maeir

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,993 words
Illustration(s):
1

...b.c.e. abandonment of the site following the Hazael destruction. On the other hand, 2 Chronicles 26:6 ’s account of the destruction of the wall of Gath by Uzziah of Judah is not evidenced archaeologically. In later texts, when the Philistine cities are mentioned (e.g., Amos 1:6–8 ; Jer 25:20 ; Zeph 2:4 ), Gath is no longer mentioned, apparently reflecting that it was no longer an important Philistine site from the eighth century b.c.e. onward (as evidenced in the archaeological remains as well). In the Neo-Assyrian texts, Gath is mentioned as having...

Galilee

Galilee   Reference library

Yardenna Alexandre

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
7,488 words

... Galil is used for “a cylindrical rod or rolls” (although it is translated as imagery in NRSV as “his arms are rounded gold” [ Song 5:14 ] and “silver rings” [ Esther 1:6 ]). By extension the noun Galil relates to a “district,” possibly because a district could be measured with a cylindrical rod. It appears in the Hebrew Bible relating specifically to the northern, hilly region of Israel ( Josh 20:7 , 21:32 ; 1 Kgs 9:11 ; 2 Kgs 15:29 ; 1 Chr 6:61 ) and twice as םיוגה לילג , “Galilee of the nations,” in Isa 9:1 , or the “Goiim in Galilee” in ...

Coins

Coins   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
7,430 words
Illustration(s):
4

...follows: (1) half-length figure (daric 8 g, siglos 5.4 g); (2) archer shooting with bow (daric 7.87–8.34 g, siglos 5.4 g); (3) archer running with bow and spear, two pellets vertically beneath ear (daric 8.35 g, siglos 5.4 g); (4) archer running with bow and spear, no pellets beneath ear (daric 8.35 g, siglos 5.60 g); and (5) archer running with bow and dagger (daric 8.35 g, siglos 5.60 g). Although the silver coin is known in Greek as the siglos (i.e., shekel), it was in fact the gold daric which was to weigh 8.35 g, representing (with a small discount for...

Cult

Cult   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
5,924 words
Illustration(s):
3

...argue that molek is the name of a god of child sacrifice (e.g., George C. Heider , The Cult of Molek: A Reassessment , Sheffield, 1986 ; John Day , Molech: A God of Human Sacrifice in the Old Testament , Cambridge, 1989 ). Child sacrifice in Israel was more likely directed to Yahweh than a supposed god Molek, as the development of the so-called law of the firstborn ( Ex. 13:1–2, 11–16, 22:28b–29 [Eng.29b–30], 34:19–20; Nm. 3:11–13, 41 ), certain prophetic texts ( Ez .20:25–26; Mi. 6:6–8 ), and Genesis 22 all strongly suggest. The cultic function...

Phoenician-Punic

Phoenician-Punic   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
6,025 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Ahiram, c. 1000 BCE; (2) Cyprus, ninth century BCE; (3) Zincirli, Kilamuwa, late ninth century BCE; (4) Karatepe, late eighth-early seventh century BCE; (5) Abu Simbel, c. 591 BCE; (6) Byblos, Yehawmilk, fifth century BCE; (7) Byblos, Batno῾am, late fourth century BCE; (8) Sidon, Tabnit and Eshmunazar, late sixth-fifth century BCE; (9) Cyprus, fourth-third century BCE; (10) Gaulos, third-second century BCE; (11) Sardinia, third-second century BCE; (12) Carthage, third-second century BCE; (13) Leptis Magna, late first century BCE-first century CE. (Courtesy M....

Four-Room House

Four-Room House   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,828 words
Illustration(s):
3

... 8:16 ) are set up to soften the summer sun and that during the hottest months, families often sleep on the roof. Ethnographically, this is the woman's domain—house tops being the common pathways between closely packed neighboring households in some modern walled villages (Jacobs, 1979 , p. 179). There, and by parallel in ancient Near Eastern cities and villages, cultic ceremonies are conducted on rooftops ( Jer. 19:13; Zep. 1:5 ), as were corporate mourning and rejoicing ( Is. 15:3, 22:1 ), sleeping ( 1 Sm. 9:25 ), bathing ( 2 Sm. 11:2 ...

Egyptian Aramaic Texts

Egyptian Aramaic Texts   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
12,108 words

...letter Edfu? (acquired at Luxor) Sayce Oxford Cowley (Cowley 82) D1.17 27. 1906–1908 (1911, 1970, 1974, 1978, 1988) 20 letters, 18 contracts, 9 lists/accounts, Bisitun, Ahiqar (with erased Customs Account), fragments Elephantine Otto Rubensohn, Friedrich Zucker Berlin, Cairo Eduard Sachau, Zuhair Shunnar, Degen, Porten A3.1–2, 58, 10; 4.1–4, 6–10; 5.2; 6.1–2; B3.1; 4.1, 3–6; 5.1–2, 4–5; 6.2–4; 7.1–4; 8.5; C1.1; 2.1; 3.3–4, 7, 9, 13–15; 4.4–8 28. 1913 (1921) Fragmentary list Saqqara James Edward Quibell Cairo Noel Aimé-Giron C4.1 29. 1924–1925 (1931)...

Musical Instruments

Musical Instruments   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
7,514 words
Illustration(s):
3

...from Anatolia should be associated with this type of aerophone rather than with trumpets (cf. Turnbull, 1980 , fig. 8). Single zamr instruments appear on numerous artifacts, mostly in pastoral surroundings (Beth-Shean, sixth century, Lady Mary Monastery mosaic, in situ: Farmer, 1966 , ill. 5). Panpipe. The earliest evidence of panpipes (syrinxes) in the region is probably from Anatolia (seventh century bce : Turnbull, 1980 , fig. 7). It has been one of the most popular instruments in the Near East since Seleucid times (Rashid, 1984 , p. 142) and has...

View: