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stimulus discrimination

stimulus discrimination  

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A phenomenon identified in behaviourist learning theory: the individual learns to distinguish, for response purposes, between similar stimuli.
decarceration

decarceration  

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The process of removing people from institutions such as prisons or mental hospitals—the opposite of incarceration. In the middle of the 20th century, this became a central feature in the ...
technicism

technicism  

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A belief that technocracy is desirable or inevitable. Also a broad social movement, especially influential in the United States during the early 20th century (the Technocracy Movement), calling for ...
technological society

technological society  

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Some writers argue that there is a distinctive type of society, typically emergent from various forms of industrialism, in which technology and a technocracy increasingly determine the nature of ...
semi-colonialism

semi-colonialism  

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A term used, classically by Lenin and Mao Zedong (see Maoism), to describe states that in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were penetrated by imperial capital, trade, and political influence, ...
agnate

agnate  

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In Roman law, agnati were a group of males and females who were related through a common ancestor, and thus came under a single family authority. The modern use in social anthropology relates to ...
Thomas H. Marshall

Thomas H. Marshall  

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(1893–1982)An English sociologist and professor of sociology at the London School of Economics. He is best-known for his theory of citizenship, developed from the ideas of his colleague Hobhouse. He ...
cybersociety

cybersociety  

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The mesh (‘space’ or ‘virtual reality’) of electronically based communications created by the world-wide network of computer users. Although it is conventional to distinguish between ‘information ...
income distribution

income distribution  

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The division of total income between different recipients. Functional income distribution is the division of income between the owners of the different factors of production. Personal income ...
actionalism

actionalism  

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A term generally associated with the name of French sociologist Alain Touraine, and not to be confused with the ‘action frame of reference’ (see action theory) proposed by Talcott Parsons. Beginning ...
enterprise society

enterprise society  

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A label commonly applied to those countries in which the state makes a conscious attempt to promote the qualities of self-reliance, innovation, and individual achievement. During the 1980s, for ...
degradation-of-work thesis

degradation-of-work thesis  

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The proposition that skilled work has declined in importance with the rise of capitalist industrialization—most notably during the 20th century and following the rise of the scientific management ...
corporate society

corporate society  

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These terms refer to a type of society in which various large-scale corporate organizations with powerful vested interests are involved in the economic, social, and political decision-making process. ...
definition of the situation

definition of the situation  

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A concept first developed by William Isaac Thomas and Florian Znaniecki in The Polish Peasant in Europe and America (1918–20), and now central to symbolic interactionism. It is the idea that people's ...
participatory democracy

participatory democracy  

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The 20th-century reincarnation of the ancient Greek ideal of government by the people (demos). Participatory democracy is direct democracy, in the sense that all citizens are actively involved in all ...
political crime

political crime  

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Historically, the term refers to conspiracy, and the actual deed of challenges to political rulers or sacred authority. Political criminals were likely to suffer much more gruesome punishment than ...
intelligentsia

intelligentsia  

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Intellectuals or highly educated people as a group, especially when regarded as possessing culture and political influence. The word comes (in the early 20th century) from Russian intelligentsiya, ...
Eduard Bernstein

Eduard Bernstein  

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(b. 6 Jan. 1850, d. 18 Dec. 1932).Revisionist German socialist leader A member of the German SPD since 1872, he became head of the party newspaper in 1881. He was the co‐author of the party's Erfurt ...
backward-sloping supply curve for labour

backward-sloping supply curve for labour  

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The preference for increased leisure over increased remuneration. Thus, when wage incentives are offered to improve productivity, labourers respond by working shorter hours to earn the same money ...
conspicuous consumption

conspicuous consumption  

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Spending on goods and services primarily to display income or wealth, or to attain a certain social status.

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