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G20

G20   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
284 words

...its policy effectiveness in comparison to the G7/8 is minor. Whereas the G7 has an established history of delivering a number of significant global initiatives, the G20 remains fairly stagnate and ineffective in its ability to generate dynamic global policy initiatives and general consensus. That said, the G20 does offer a unique forum to tackle global collective action problems. Given that the G20 represents two-thirds of the world’s population and most of its economic viability, it has built-in potential to be a meaningful global policy forum, which could...

Jean-Marie Le Pen

Jean-Marie Le Pen  

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Overview Page
(b. La Trinité-sur-Mer, 20 June 1928)French; Presidential candidate 1974, 1988, 1995, 2002, and 2007, President, National Front 1972–  Born in the western department of Morbihan, the son of a ...
dependency

dependency  

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Overview Page
A dependent territory is a territory that does not possess full political sovereignty (e.g. Ashmore and Cartier Islands is an external territory of Australia; and the Pitcairn Islands, a British ...
international economics

international economics  

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Overview Page
The parts of economics concerning the relations between countries. This includes trade in goods and services, factor movements, including migration, capital movements, and technology transfer, and ...
Great Leap Forward

Great Leap Forward  

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Overview Page
An economic and social plan in place from 1958 to 1960 aimed at rapidly transforming mainland China from an agricultural economy into an industrialized communist society. The collectivization of ...
statute law

statute law  

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Overview Page
The body of laws passed by the legislature. Statutes may be broadly divided into two. First, Public General Acts—namely, Acts passed by the government of the day or prepared by private members of ...
World Trade Organization

World Trade Organization  

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Overview Page
(WTO)An international organization with 136 member countries that was set up in 1994 to replace the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, in order to regulate international trade.
Group of Twenty

Group of Twenty   Reference library

Stephen Gill

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,171 words

...weight and more balanced political composition, the G-20 is widely held to be a more suitable venue than the Western-dominated Group of Seven (G-7) financial ministerial and Group of Eight (G-8) summit meetings of political leaders. With the post- 2008 economic crisis, the G-20 seems to have partly replaced the G-7/G-8 as the principal forum for international economic cooperation, leaving the G-8 summits to focus more on political and security issues. Critics have argued that the creation of the G-20 has further sidelined the more representative United...

Emerging Powers

Emerging Powers   Reference library

Amitav Acharya

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,304 words

...the global imbalances, exchange rate alignment, preventing bubbles, and discouraging excessive risk taking.” It is also not clear whether the G-20 would replace the G-8? As Solana ( 2010 ) put it, “Holding a G-8 summit just before a G-20 summit … simply serves to prolong the maintenance of separate clubs, which is unsustainable.” Europe is overrepresented in the G-20, and countries that should have been in the G-20 are not there. The issue of representation might be addressed through what economist Amar Bhattacharya calls “smart inclusion,” including the...

G7

G7   Quick reference

Vivien Collingwood

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,113 words

...dilemma. Lastly, the G7 continues to face criticism concerning its representativeness and relevance in the global economy, in light of its exclusive nature. While G7 members still account for almost two‐thirds of global economic output (measured by GNP), the non‐inclusion of rising economic powers such as China and India has been widely criticized. This issue was addressed at the 1999 Cologne Summit, when eleven states—including Brazil, Australia, Argentina, and South Africa—joined the G8 to form the Group of Twenty (G20) . The G20 aims to promote dialogue...

Military-Industrial Complex

Military-Industrial Complex   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
916 words

...(e.g., aggravating the arms race with the Soviet Union from the late 1940s to the late 1980s); 2) within the general defense budget, procurement of destabilizing or inappropriate weapons systems (e.g., strategic bombers and ballistic missiles, where cruise missiles could accomplish the same ends with less risk and less expense); 3) within a particular weapons system, inefficient production because of “waste, fraud, and abuse,” resulting in fewer weapons at greater cost; 4) the weakening of the non-defense industrial base of the United States (e.g., making...

Military-Industrial Complex

Military-Industrial Complex   Reference library

James Kurth

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
947 words

...(e.g., aggravating the arms race with the Soviet Union from the late 1940s to the late 1980s); (2) within the general defense budget, procurement of destabilizing or inappropriate weapons systems (e.g., strategic bombers and ballistic missiles, where cruise missiles could accomplish the same ends with less risk and less expense); (3) within a particular weapons system, inefficient production because of “waste, fraud, and abuse,” resulting in fewer weapons at greater cost; and (4) the weakening of the nondefense industrial base of the United States (e.g.,...

BRIC Countries

BRIC Countries   Reference library

Oliver Stuenkel

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
4,540 words

...BRICS members have struggled to develop joint positions on many issues, and “growth towards the outside” has been modest. The BRICS have sought to coordinate their positions at G20 Summits, and in fact, the BRICS’ leaders did convene at the G20 in June 2012 in Los Cabos, Mexico, to align their positions. Despite this, the BRICS’ capacity to coordinate their positions during the G20 Summits has been mixed, since the first summit in 2008 . The BRICS are keen on participating in the forum as equal members, but repeatedly, their positions are too heterogeneous...

Hegemony

Hegemony   Reference library

Stephen Gill

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,832 words

...narrowly conceived and coercive “neoliberal” order. This order has privileged capital and marginalized progressive forces of the left and redistributive elements within the state. At the same time, cooperation among the main capitalist states has widened, and in forums such as the G-20 and in organizations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), even Communist-ruled countries, such as China, are involved. It remains to be seen whether the deep economic crisis of 2008–2011 will result in a shift away from neoliberalism, but some change seems likely with...

Political Parties and Regime Outcomes in Multiparty Africa

Political Parties and Regime Outcomes in Multiparty Africa   Reference library

Adrienne LeBas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,154 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Studies , 20 , 516–541. Zolberg, A. (1966). Creating political order: The party-states of West Africa . Chicago, IL: Rand McNally. Notes 1. Exceptions are notable for their rarity. See Widner, 1992 . 2. As noted in the table, a few have not quite been in power 20 years, have suffered brief interruptions, or have lost a majority in parliament while retaining control of the executive. Adrienne LeBas 1. Exceptions are notable for their rarity. See Widner, 1992 . 2. As noted in the table, a few have not quite been in power 20 years, have...

Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation

Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation   Reference library

Peter D. Drysdale

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,244 words

...discussed and pursued. Following the global financial crisis of 2007–2008 , the major Asian economies (China, Japan, Korea, Indonesia, India, and Australia) assumed new global responsibilities in the G-20. Two questions that are shaping the evolution of APEC and other regional arrangements are how to relate the regional cooperation agenda to the G-20 process and what is the appropriate framework for political and security dialogue alongside regional economic dialogues. Japan hosted the APEC Summit in Yokohama in 2010 , after which follow the United...

Famine

Famine   Reference library

Robert Paarlberg

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,046 words

...of Famine Relief. (Washington, D.C., 1992). Dreze, Jean , Amartya Sen , and Athar Hussain . The Political Economy of Hunger. (Oxford, U.K., 1995). Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations . Report for the G-8 Summit, 8–10 July 2009. http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/newsroom/docs/FAO_G8_backgrounder.pdf . Sen, Amartya . Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. (Oxford, U.K., 1981). Robert Paarlberg...

The Capacity of Decentralization to Promote Democracy and Development in Africa

The Capacity of Decentralization to Promote Democracy and Development in Africa   Reference library

Amy R. Poteete

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,080 words

...Africa (30%) Moderate Algeria (29%) Morocco (27%) 10 countries 20%–29% Kenya (29%) Sudan (25%) (18.9%) Gambia (27%) Botswana (24%) Guinea Bissau (27%) Madagascar (20%) Togo (23%) Zimbabwe (20%) Low Cape Verde (17%) Tanzania (14%) 13 countries 10%–19% Burkina Faso (15%) Ghana (11%) (24.5%) Angola (14%) Burundi (10%) Cameroon (10%) CAR (10%) Chad (10%) Congo, Rep. (10%) DRC (10%) Liberia (10%) Libya (10%) Very low Mauritius (9%) Gambia (9%) Senegal (8%) 11 countries < 10% Rwanda (8%) Namibia (5%) (20.8%) Lesotho (5%) Tunisia (5%) Niger (5%) Côte d’Ivoire...

Party Systems in Africa

Party Systems in Africa   Reference library

Matthias Basedau

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,702 words

...G. (2004). Party research: Western European bias and the “African labyrinth.” Democratication , 11 (3), 63–87. Erdmann, G. (2005). Hesitant bedfellows: The German Stiftungen and party aid in Africa. An attempt at an assessment (CSRG Working Paper No. 184/05). Coventry, UK: Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation, University of Warwick. Erdmann, G. (2007a). Ethnicity, voter alignment and political party affiliation—An African case: Zambia (German Institute of Global and Area Studies [GIGA], Working Paper No. 45). Erdmann, G. ...

Reconsidering African Elections

Reconsidering African Elections   Reference library

Carolien van Ham and Staffan Lindberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,592 words
Illustration(s):
5

...Total Number of Elections Held (N) Countries (N) Countries (%) Longest Sequence of Consecutive Elections (N) Countries (N) Countries (%) 0 3 6.1 0 3 6.1 2 0 0.0 2 2 4.1 3 1 2.0 3 4 8.2 4 3 6.1 4 1 2.0 5 3 6.1 5 8 16.3 6 4 8.2 6 6 12.2 7 4 8.2 7 4 8.2 8 3 6.1 8 3 6.1 9 2 4.1 9 1 2.0 10 11 22.4 10 12 24.5 11 8 16.3 11 4 8.2 12 0 0.0 12 1 2.0 13 3 6.1 14 1 2.0 15 1 2.0 16 1 2.0 17 1 2.0 Total 49 100.0 Total 49 100.0 However, if we take into account whether elections had consequences, that is, whether elections were subsequently annulled, or followed by a coup...

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