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perinatal transmission

perinatal transmission  

The usual form of vertical transmission of pathogenic agents, e.g., hepatitis B and HIV, from mother to infant.
deadly nightshade

deadly nightshade  

The common garden plant Atropa belladonna, the flowers of which contain hyoscine and scopolamine, two drugs that in overdoses cause flushing, dilated pupils, rapid heart rate, hallucinations, coma, ...
Registrar General's Classification

Registrar General's Classification  

An official scheme of class analysis used in British surveys and censuses for much of the 20th century. In sociological work it was largely superseded by the Goldthorpe class scheme. The new NS-SEC ...
nuclear power plants

nuclear power plants  

After the discovery of nuclear energy, nuclear power plants were an obvious industrial development to meet the world's increasing demand for energy, especially electric power. Nuclear power plants ...
moral

moral  

Syn: morality. The accepted norms and standards of conduct of a society, community, or nation. Some are virtually universal features of human societies, such as prohibition of murder, rape, and ...
social pathology

social pathology  

Structural and functional malfunction of society associated with pervasive problems that often have adverse consequences for health. It is often difficult to discern causal linkages, but an example ...
reproductive technology

reproductive technology  

This term describes methods of investigation and treatment for couples who desire to have a child and have failed to conceive one. Most methods were developed in the last third of the 20th century. ...
smoking

smoking  

Unqualified, this word refers to tobacco smoking, which became popular and socially acceptable among European and American men in the 18th and 19th centuries. During and after World War I, cigarette ...
managed care

managed care  

A form of fiscal management of medical services used by health maintenance organizations and other health care organizations to allocate referral and treatment services. The effects on personal care ...
private sector

private sector  

A general term for those aspects of the economy that function by means of the purchase and sale of goods and services to generate the income required for subsistence (or better than mere ...
prevention

prevention  

Policies and actions to eliminate a disease or minimize its effect; to reduce the incidence and/por prevalence of disease, disability, and premature death; to reduce the prevalence of disease ...
monogamy

monogamy  

Marriage or an equivalent relationship of two partners, generally of opposite sexes, with the implied understanding that it is a lifelong arrangement. In modern Western countries, a common variation ...
complementary medicine

complementary medicine  

Various forms of medicine that are considered as complementary to conventional medicine. These include acupuncture, osteopathy, homeopathy, aromatherapy, and reflexology. Some of these forms of ...
smog

smog  

Fog or haze intensified by smoke or other atmospheric pollutants; the word is recorded from the early 20th century, and is a blend of smoke and fog.
quarantine

quarantine  

(kwo-răn-teen)the period for which a person (or animal) is kept in isolation to prevent the spread of a contagious disease. Different diseases have different quarantine periods.
Mechanical Transmission

Mechanical Transmission   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Mechanical Transmission Transmission of pathogens by a vector (e.g., a housefly) without biological development in or dependence on the vector. Many fecal-oral infections are spread by this means. 20 , 22 , 56 , 188 , 217 , 218 , 219 See also vector-borne infection . ...

Contact, Indirect

Contact, Indirect   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Contact, Indirect A mode of Transmission Of Infection involving Fomites or Vectors . Vectors may be mechanical (e.g., filth flies) or biological (when the disease agent undergoes part of its life cycle in the vector species). 20 , 22 , 56 , 69 , 188 , 217 , 218 , 219 ...

Chain of Infection

Chain of Infection   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Chain of Infection (Syn: infectious disease cycle, chain of transmission ) A set of parameters involved in the transmission of an infectious agent (e.g., the source of infection, the vectors, a susceptible host). 20 , 56 , 217 , 218 , 219 ...

Cross-Infection

Cross-Infection   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Cross-Infection Infection of one person with pathogenic organisms from another and vice versa. Different from Nosocomial infection , which occurs in a health care setting; cross-infection can occur anywhere (e.g., in military barracks, schools, workplaces). 20 , 22 , 56 , 69 , 188 , 217 , 218 , 219 ...

lowest observed adverse effect level

lowest observed adverse effect level   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...(adverse) health effects in people or animals. The lowest concentration of a substance at which adverse effects are observed. Its relevance for humans may be limited by the small numbers of test animals often used in toxicology studies (generally 20 to 50 per dose group); this may result in imprecise estimates (e.g., about the shape of the dose-response relationship at a low dose ). See also uncertainty factor . ...

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