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Chechnya

Chechnya   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,190 words

....] bibliography American Committee for Peace in the Caucasus. Ingushetia: Trends behind the Recent Violence: Interview with Eliza Musaeva and Tanya Lokshina . Interview conducted by Iva Savic, October 28, 2007. http://peaceinthecaucasus.org/PDF%20and%20Audio%20files/Eliza%20Musaeva%20and%20Tanya%20Lokshina%20Interview.html American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. Catastrophe in Chechnya: Escaping the Quagmire . Transcript of conference held December 10, 2003. Amnesty International. Russia . ...

Simon Wiesenthal

Simon Wiesenthal   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,417 words

...Crimes against Humanity ; Forensic Science ; Genocide ; Holocaust ; Israel ; Nuremberg and Tokyo Trials ; Universal Declaration of Human Rights ; and Elie Wiesel .] Bibliography Finkelstein, Norman G. Beyond Chutzpah: On the Misuse of Anti-Semitism and the Abuse of History . Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2005. Finkelstein, Norman G. The Holocaust Industry: Reflections on the Exploitation of Jewish Suffering . 2d ed. New York: Verso, 2003....

P.E.N.

P.E.N.   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
1,493 words

...the literature of its neighbors, it is less likely to be afraid of them and would recognize common yearnings and feelings expressed in their novels and poetry. Writers should strive to make words for peace—not words for war. Many P.E.N. speeches thus contain reference to Article 20 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which specifically prohibits propaganda for war. Membership, Committees, and Congresses As of September 2008 , P.E.N. comprised 146 centers in 104 countries on six continents—with a total membership of more than ten...

Care International

Care International   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,254 words

...G. Maxwell . Food Aid after Fifty Years: Recasting Its Role . New York: Routledge, 2005. Jones, Andrew . Incorporation of a Rights-Based Approach into CARE's Program Cycle, a Discussion Paper for CARE's Program Staff. July 2001. http://www.pqdl.care.org . Martinez, Eliza . The Courage to Change: Confronting the Limits and Unleashing the Potential of CARE's Programming for Women. Synthesis Report: Phase 2. CARE International Strategic Impact Inquiry on Women's Empowerment. February 2006. http://www.csps.emory.edu/SII%20Phase%202%20Synthesis%20Report%20...

Judaism

Judaism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,790 words

...not wrong the stranger or oppress him, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt.” Before leaving this book of Leviticus, mention must also be made of chapters 18, 19, and 20, which the rabbis termed the “Holiness Code.” Contained within these three chapters are laws which strongly address unlawful sexual relations, a listing of various and diverse laws in no particular order (e.g., regarding making idols, swearing falsely, defrauding, practicing sorcery, etc.), and appropriate punishments for various sins. Significantly, in two places—18:26 and...

Israel

Israel   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,202 words

...harming others (derived from John Stuart Mill's philosophy)—are enshrined also in humanistic Judaism. In 2007 the Israeli population was approximately 7.2 million. Some 20 percent of the Jewish people in Israel are religious and may prefer theocracy over democracy. Some 20 percent of the Israeli people are Palestinian Arabs who do not endorse the Zionist ethos of the state. A further 20 percent of Israelis arrived from the Soviet Union and are in many cases unfamiliar with the practice of democracy. Most of the Russian immigrants are secular, if not...

Lebanon

Lebanon   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,844 words

...of personal status to the religious authorities. Article 13 covers the basic freedoms of speech, assembly, and association, whereas Article 15 protects rights of ownership. Section B of the constitution deals with powers, and under the heading “General Provisions” (B.I.), Article 20 guarantees the independence of judges in the exercise of their duties. Judicial independence, one might recall, is a fundamental element of an effective human rights regime. Among those provisions of the Taif Agreement not included in the amended Lebanese constitution, stipulations...

Kashmir

Kashmir   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,370 words

...1947–2004 . New York: Routledge, 2006. Thomas, Raju G. C. Perspectives on Kashmir . Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1992. Wirsing, Robert G. India, Pakistan, and the Kashmir Dispute . New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994. Wirsing, Robert G. Kashmir in the Shadow of War: Regional Rivalries in a Nuclear Age . New York: M. E. Sharp, 2002. Human Rights and Security NGO Reports Amnesty International, India. “If they are dead, tell us: ‘Disappearances’ in Jammu and Kashmir.” In Amnesty International 2008 , ASA 20/002/1999. Amnesty International USA, 1999. Amnesty...

Religious Freedom

Religious Freedom   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,452 words

...of Religion or Belief . July 20, 2007. Krishnaswami, Arcot . Study of Discrimination in the Matter of Religious Rights and Practices . New York: United Nations, 1960. Lerner, Natan . “Defining the Nature and Minimum Standards of Freedom of Religion or Belief.” Chapter 3 in Facilitating Freedom of Religion or Belief: A Deskbook , edited by Tore Lindholm , W. Cole Durham Jr. , and Bahia G. Thazib-Lie . Oslo: Oslo Coalition, 2006. http://www.oslocoalition.org/deskbook.php . Lindholm, Tom , W. Cole Durham, Jr. , Bahia G. Tahzib-Lie , eds. Facilitating...

Weapons of Mass Destruction

Weapons of Mass Destruction   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,862 words

...Review of the Red Cross 316 (1997): 92–102. Nanda, Ved P. , ed. “Nuclear Weapons and the Right to Survival, Peace, and Development.” Denver Journal of International Law and Policy 19 (1990): 1–114. Ramcharan, B. G. “The Concept and Dimensions of the Right to Life.” In The Right to Life in International Law , edited by B. G. Ramcharan , pp. 1–32. Dordrecht, The Netherlands; Boston; and Lancaster, U.K.: Martinus Nijhoff, 1985. United Nations. The United Nations and Disarmament: A Short History . New York: United Nations, 1988. Weapons of Mass...

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,975 words

...Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. “Human Rights Commission of Sri Lanka Act, No. 21 of 1996.” The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka , August 23, 1996, Part II. http://www.hrcsl.lk/PFF/HRC%20Act.pdf . Prevention of Terrorism Act. The Gazette of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka , July 20, 1979, No. 48. http://www.tamilnation.org/srilankalaws/79pta.htm . Richardson, John . Paradise Poisoned: Learning about Conflict, Terrorism, and Development from Sri Lanka's Civil Wars . Colombo, Sri Lanka: International...

European Union

European Union   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,399 words

...on dignity, freedom, solidarity, equality, citizenship, and justice. Many of the rights protected have been affirmed elsewhere (e.g., the catalog of civil and political rights). The charter is noteworthy, however, for several innovations. For example, it covers a number of economic and social rights under the “solidarity” rubric that are not covered by the ECHR or only in part by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (e.g., the right to collective bargaining and action, including the right to strike; protection in the event of unjustified dismissal; and...

José Ayala Lasso

José Ayala Lasso   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,141 words

...of 25 June 1993 recommended to the General Assembly that it establish the office of a High Commissioner for Human Rights. Ayala Lasso chaired the UN General Assembly working group that considered the Vienna Declaration and drafted Resolution 48/141, adopted by consensus on 20 December 1993 , establishing the post and defining its mandate. Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali nominated Ayala Lasso, and the General Assembly confirmed the appointment. Ayala Lasso started his four-year mandate on 5 April 1994 . Work as High Commissioner The priorities...

Right to Life

Right to Life   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,470 words

...especially thermonuclear war, and to strengthen international peace and security would constitute the most important condition and guarantee for the safeguarding of the right to life. In this respect, the Committee notes, in particular, a connection between article 6 and article 20, which states that the law shall prohibit any propaganda for war (para. 1) or incitement to violence (para. 2) as therein described. ( General Comment 6(16) , UN Doc. CCPR/C/21/Add.1, para. 2) Nevertheless, the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights is the only major human...

Colombia

Colombia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,933 words

...of paramilitary militias in the repression and elimination of alleged supporters of the guerrilla insurgency. By the beginning of the 2000s paramilitary groups were the perpetrators of over 70 percent of all politically motivated killings, increasing from a rate of less than 20 percent in the early 1990s. In April 1997 paramilitary units from federal departments united to form the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia. This created a paramilitary army with the capacity to strike on a national scope. The expanded struggle against guerrillas largely...

Iraq

Iraq   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,017 words

...Kurds The Kurds are an ethnolinguistic group of 25 million who straddle the boundaries of Iraq, Turkey, Iran, Syria, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. They constitute the world's largest ethnic group without a national homeland. About 20 percent of the world's roughly 30 million Kurds live in northern Iraq, and they constitute about 20 percent of Iraq's population, making them the second largest ethnic group. They were subjected to massive human rights violations by Saddam's regime largely because many supported Iran in the 1980–1988 Iran-Iraq War but also...

Indo-Pak Massacres

Indo-Pak Massacres   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,672 words

...Partition Violence and the State in Uttar Pradesh.” In The Deadly Embrace: Religion, Politics, and Violence in India and Pakistan 1947–2002 , edited by Ian Talbot , pp. 36–60. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press, 2007. Khosla, G. D. Memory's Gay Chariot: An Autobiographical Narrative . New Delhi: Allied, 1985. Khosla, G. D. Stern Reckoning: A Story of Events Leading up to and Following the Partition of India . 2d ed. New Delhi: Oxford University Press 1999. Mansergh, N. , ed. The Transfer of Power 1942–1947 . Vol. 10. London: HMSO, 1981. Menon,...

Indonesia

Indonesia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,503 words

...the overwhelming majority, 78.5 percent, voted for independence. Immediately following the referendum, the militias, supported by the Indonesian troops, wrought havoc over East Timor. UN staff were also targeted, and the internationals among them were ordered to evacuate. When on 20 September the first troops of the International Force for East Timor ( INTERFET ) arrived, mandated by the Security Council, they found a country in ashes. More than 1,300 people had been killed, about 70 percent of East Timor's infrastructure was destroyed, and an estimated...

Raoul Wallenberg

Raoul Wallenberg   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,301 words

...to the report of the Swedish-Russian Working Group devoted to Wallenberg, a group commissioned in 1991 to inquire into his fate and that published its report in 2000 , the total number of Jews living in houses under the protection of the Swedish legation rose to 15,000 to 20,000 persons. The report continues: “In all, foreign legations and the International Red Cross rescued at least 50,000 Hungarian Jews, with Raoul Wallenberg saving at least half of them. It is possible that they rescued as many as 100,000, if those in the ghetto are included; some...

Carter Center

Carter Center   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,705 words

...supporting local human rights defenders around the world. When Carter was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002 , his work through the Carter Center and, notably, its commitment to human rights were emphasized in the citation. Early Years When Carter left the U.S. presidency on 20 January 1981 , he decided to create an institute to continue his work on the public issues most important to him. As president, he had successfully brokered the Camp David Accords and the subsequent peace treaty between Israel and Egypt. He also had raised human rights to a new...

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