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Amedeus

Amedeus  

Lover of A.G.A. and, with his old sweetheart Angelica, possibly the murderer of Julius Brenzaida, in the Gondal saga.
Daily News

Daily News  

Was founded by Dickens in 1845 as a Liberal rival to the Morning Chronicle; the first issue appeared on 21 Jan. 1846. Dickens edited the paper for 17 numbers only, then handed over to John Forster. ...
Cabinet Edition

Cabinet Edition   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
110 words

...Edition . In February 1877 G. H. *Lewes suggested to John *Blackwood that a uniform edition of George Eliot's novels was desirable. In April Blackwood was considering a 19–20-volume set, details being finalized in July. In January 1878 publication began with volume i of Romola , one volume of the works being added per month, though Middlemarch and Daniel Deronda were probably issued in December 1878 . In 1879 the poetry (2 volumes), in 1880 Impressions of Theophrastus Such were added, making 20 volumes. Eliot made a number of...

Dictionary of National Biography

Dictionary of National Biography   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
113 words

...Garnett , is three and a half pages, as compared with, for example, three for G. H. Lewes and five and a half for George Eliot . Garnett 's biography draws heavily on An Autobiography , overemphasizing Trollope 's routine and discipline. Though he insists that the writing is mechanical and Trollope ‘never creates—only depicts’, Garnett correctly predicts that his faithfulness to detail in the depictions of 19th-century life will enhance Trollope 's reputation in the 20th. JK Judith...

Mirror of Parliament

Mirror of Parliament   Reference library

Kathryn Chittick

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
181 words

...its inception: ‘I do not hesitate to say that Barrow's Mirror of Parliament is the primary record, and not Hansard's Debates , because of the great fullness which Barrow aimed at and obtained’ ( Hansard , 233: 1577 ; 20 April 1877 ). Kathryn Chittick Carlton, W. J. , Charles Dickens, Shorthand Writer (1926). Grubb, Gerald G. , ‘ Dickens's First Experience as a Parliamentary Reporter ’, Dickensian , 36...

Milnes, Richard Monckton

Milnes, Richard Monckton (1809–85)   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
287 words

...letters , traveller , patron of young writers , and friend of George Eliot and G. H. *Lewes . According to Gordon S. *Haight , he was ‘the most conspicuous lion-hunter of his day’ ( 1968 : 388). He held extraordinary parties at Upper Brook Street in London which brought together a wide range of artists, writers, and intellectuals from Britain and abroad. On 20 June 1864 he brought George Eliot a copy of his poems. Thereafter he came to The *Priory regularly, and G. H. Lewes and Eliot often dined with him. Eliot sent Sara *Hennell the autograph of...

Oliphant, Margaret

Oliphant, Margaret (1828–97)   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
316 words

...Margaret ( 1828–97 ), née Wilson , prolific Scots novelist , editor , and reviewer . She wrote to Hardy on 20 July 1882 inviting him to contribute an article on ‘the labouring poor in the countryside’ to Longman's Magazine ; the result was his important essay ‘The Dorsetshire Labourer’, published there in July 1883 . As a reviewer she frequently attacked the immorality of Hardy's fiction and specifically his questioning of female chastity and the sanctity of marriage. An unsigned article in the Spectator ( 18 January 1890 ) refers to the...

Freud, Sigmund

Freud, Sigmund (1856–1939)   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
307 words

... to *Shakespeare , Diderot, *Goethe , and Dostoevsky—had anticipated his theories of unconscious motivation. George Eliot may be added to that list, and indeed many 20th-century readers have found in her works striking instantiations of such key psychoanalytic notions as narcissism (in Rosamond Vincy, or in the bleaker variety exemplified by Mr Casaubon ) or the compulsion to repeat (e.g. in Gwendolen Harleth's obsessive replayings of the scene of her husband's drowning ( see Criticism, Modern: Psychoanalytic Approaches )). Such readings avoid the...

Schubert, Franz

Schubert, Franz (1797–1828)   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
310 words

...Eliot replaced this with *Beethoven 's contextually more suitable ‘Per pietà non dirmi addio’ (‘Ah, perfido!’). The Leweses were also responsive to Schubert's instrumental music. They heard his Octet on 8 March 1868 , and a ‘glorious concert’ ( Journals , 135) they attended on 20 February 1869 wound up with his Trio. On both occasions, Joseph *Joachim and Alfredo Carlo *Piatti were performing Schubert was included in George Eliot's own repertoire. In the summer of 1869 , she would sometimes play either his music, or Beethoven's, to Lewes's son Thornie...

Trollope, Thomas Adolphus

Trollope, Thomas Adolphus (1810–92)   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
307 words

...she read his La Beata ( 1861 ). Some of the heroine's characteristics anticipate Tessa's. Eliot valued Trollope greatly, he dined with them in August 1865 after his first wife's death, and brought his second wife to them in July 1867 . The Leweses stayed with the Trollopes 20– 5 March 1869 , and Eliot's appreciative thank-you (1 April), apparently after an argument on religion, called him ‘a friend who is among the best of men with the worst of theories’ ( L v. 22). His new house, she told John *Blackwood , had a magnificent view of Florence. They...

Vienna

Vienna   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
257 words

...changed its character since their first visit and lost all its charm ( L v. 87–91). Vienna features in ‘The Lifted Veil’, where it is called ‘that teutonic Paris’ (LV 1), and in Daniel Deronda , where it is one of the scenes of Mirah's unhappy life with her father ( DD 20); but neither work presents any particularized description of the city....

phrenology

phrenology   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
570 words

...and the portion behind the ear is rather small in the regions of Comb [ativeness] Amat-[iveness] and Philopro[genitiveness]. Love of approb[ation], and Concentrativeness are large. ( L viii. 27) Phrenological readings of Eliot by her contemporaries have been used in the 20th century as a source of biographical information—surprisingly, given current scepticism regarding such methods. A case in point is Gordon S. *Haight 's use of Bray's tendentious phrenological interpretation, that she always ‘requir[ed] some one to lean upon, preferring… the...

translations of George Eliot's works

translations of George Eliot's works   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
536 words

...Middlemarch and Felix Holt’, adding, ‘I feel that it is treason to Literature to encourage incompetence. … For my part, I should not care if my books never were turned into other words than those in which I wrote them’ ( L vii. 119–20). See also France ; Germany ; ‘ Translations and Translators ’ . JJ Ashton, Rosemary , G. H. Lewes: A Life (1991). ...

Belgium

Belgium   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
425 words

...was the first country George Eliot reached on the journey to *Weimar with G. H. *Lewes in July 1854 that marked the crucial turning point in her life. On 10 July she had written to Sara *Hennell that she was preparing to go to ‘Labassecour’ ( L ii. 165), Charlotte *Brontë 's term for Belgium in Villette ( 1855 ), but the country was never to be as important in her life as it was for Brontë , or to feature in her fiction. Her diary entry for 20 July describes the dawn breaking over the estuary of the Scheldt and the first sight of land as...

Shelley, Percy Bysshe

Shelley, Percy Bysshe (1792–1822)   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
501 words

...first she distrusts her feelings and believes she must acquire a form of knowledge that is independent of feeling, thus her disastrous marriage to Casaubon: ‘She was humiliated to find herself a mere victim of feeling, as if she could know nothing except through that medium’ ( MM 20). Her development in the novel is towards the realization that feeling can be trusted as a form of knowledge. In Daniel Deronda , a novel dominated by Romantic concerns, Shelley is also a significant influence. Like Dorothea, Deronda—who is linked with ‘the poet who writes a Queen...

Middle East

Middle East   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
494 words

...and Richard Burton , Gifford Palgrave , and Charles Doughty , among others, wrote of their adventures in the area. Burton travelled disguised as a Muslim doctor to the holy places of Mecca and Medina . Also, interest in the economic exploitation of the region grew as 20th century technology created the need for oil. All these factors led to Britain seeking and getting mandates over Palestine, Transjordan, and Iraq after the First World War. Trollope travelled to the Middle East twice. In 1858 , the Post Office sent him to Egypt to improve postal...

Hennell, Sara Sophia

Hennell, Sara Sophia (1812–99)   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,011 words

...of George Eliot, the seventh child born into a strict Unitarian family. Her father was a successful merchant who died when Sara was 4, and the children were brought up with a deep and lasting sense of their religion and a dedication to the Christian ideal. From about the age of 20 Sara was a governess, for a time in the family of John Bonham Carter , MP, and she first met Marian Evans at the *Brays' house Rosehill in July 1842 where she stayed regularly. Her sister Caroline (Cara), two years her junior, had married Bray in 1836 . Intellectual by nature...

Balzac, Honoré de

Balzac, Honoré de (1799–1850)   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
704 words

...moments of melodramatic intensity, suggests that George Eliot found more in Balzac than mere grounds for moral disapproval. See also realism . JMR Couch (1967). Kendrick, Walter M. , ‘ Balzac and British Realism: Mid-Victorian Theories of the Novel ’, Victorian Studies , 20 (1976). Rignall, John , ‘ George Eliot, Balzac and Proust ’, in Rignall (1997). ...

earnings of George Eliot

earnings of George Eliot   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
508 words

...of George Eliot . George Eliot 's first earnings were £20 for her translation of D. F. *Strauss 's Das Leben Jesu , published in 1846 (and 25 copies of the book). Her later translation of Ludwig *Feuerbach was hardly more lucrative: she earned 2 s. a page, about £30 in all. She was in the fortunate position of having a small income of about £90 annually from her father's estate, so that when she went to *London in 1851 she was not entirely dependent on her earnings. Her work as editor of the * Westminster Review appears to have been unpaid,...

Florence

Florence   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
566 words

...under Victor Emmanuel II . They also undertook a demanding four-day trip on horseback to the monasteries of Camoldi and La Vernia (the latter built by Francis of Assisi in the 13th century). During a third visit to *Italy in 1869 , the Leweses stayed in Florence from 20 to 25 March and again 23 to 27 April, both times with Tom Trollope and his second wife, the former Frances Eleanor Ternan , whom he had married in 1866 following the death of the first Mrs Trollope ( née Theodosia Garrow , 1825–65 ). They dined with the American ambassador,...

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