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Hebrew rhetoric

Hebrew rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,596 words

...and poetic (3.1–5; 20.7–10) oracles, also in his defense before the court (26.12–15): Yahweh sent me to prophesy against this house and against this city — all the things that you have heard…(26.12) …for in truth Yahweh sent me to you to speak in your ears all these things (26.15) The inclusio frames oracles by the prophetess Huldah ( 2 Kgs . 22.16–20) and by Jeremiah's adversary, Hananiah ( Jer . 28.2–4). This figure is present in Akkadian poetry, in classical poetry, where it is called “ring composition,” and in modern poetry (e.g., the poems of Carl...

Epideictic genre

Epideictic genre   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
4,507 words

...genre . Ancient writers, beginning with Aristotle, identify three genres of rhetorical discourse: symbouleutic, dicanic, and epideictic (cf. e.g., Aristotle Rhetoric 1358a36–58b20; Rhetorica ad Alexandrum 1421b7; Rhetorica ad Herennium 1.2.2; Quintilian Institutio oratoria 3.3.14). According to Aristotle ( 384–322 bce ), the first two of these genres have the most precisely-defined contexts, purposes, and audiences. Symbouleutic (or “Deliberative”) rhetoric generally took place in a public, political assembly, such as the Athenian assembly or...

Exhortation

Exhortation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,909 words

...promise and warning (e.g., chapter 35: “The good word is heard by Him and the good deed exalted. But those that plot evil shall be sternly punished.”), and displays fewer of the Greco-Roman forms. [ See Arabic rhetoric .] Christian Adaptation and Development. Most Greco-Roman forms of exhortation can be found in early Christian literature. Their use, however, is looser and their purposes more urgent. The Gospels contain considerable hortatory rhetoric in the forms of parables (e.g., Lk . 10.25–37), rhetorical contrast (e.g., Mt . 5.20–48), hyperbolē ( Mt ....

Color

Color   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,511 words

...declamatory performance. Traces of such competition are manifest in Seneca's own connoisseurship: for instance, he declares that Latro and Otho achieved distinction in their virtuoso handling of certain colores (e.g., Cont . 10 pr. 15; 2.1.34–39), while Gargonius and Murredius are contemptible for their inappropriate, tasteless colores (e.g., Cont . 1.7.18; 9.4.22). Because the back story introduces new events, colores may be productive, generating new declamations and even new history. Consider Controversia (2.4), which involves two brothers, one of...

Controversia and Suasoria

Controversia and Suasoria   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,407 words

...a general question, often ethical but also scientific (e.g., Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics 9.2.1: is it necessary to obey a father in all things?). The theses on whether a man should marry may date from Theophrastus ( c.372–c.287 bce ). Quintilian (3.5.11) articulated the relationship of the thesis to suasoria : thesis changes to suasoria once a name or particular occasion is added; whether Cato should marry is thus a suasoria . Aristotle's query about obeying a father became hackneyed (Seneca 2.1.20 and Declamationes minores 257; Aulus Gellius , second...

Kairos

Kairos   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,001 words

...what presses the rhetor forward to speak but also what constitutes the value of speech. Second, kairos is figured temporally and tied to a Pythagorean conception of the universe modeled on the number seven, the number of Opportunity (Aristotle, Metaphysics 985b.30; 990a.20; 1078b.20). According to Rostagni ( 1922 ) and Untersteiner ( 1954 ), this worldview converges in Gorgias, the fifth-century bce rhetorician who possibly wrote a treatise entitled On the Right Moment in Time . As a master word, kairos is both the context and the guide for the...

Stasis

Stasis   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,622 words

... (Lat. coniectura ), the issue of fact or conjecture. The question is whether the defendant did or did not perform the act (e.g., took or did not take a sacred object). If this line of defense is questionable, the next available strategy is to concede the act and to raise the issue of definition. The question is whether the act fits into the category of acts described in the relevant normative sources as forbidden (e.g., whether the taking of a sacred object from a private house constitutes “sacrilege”); this is the stasis of horos (Lat. ...

Hypertext

Hypertext   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,344 words

...and reading. The essays are thoughtful and suggestive. Their commentary and predictions are no less interesting in light of the fact that most were written prior to 1994 and can now be evaluated in light of the advent and growth of the World Wide Web. Landow, George P. Hypertext 2.0 . Baltimore, 1997. As the definitive work on hypertext to date, this book describes the development, nature, and applications of hypertext, primarily in the period just prior to its use on the World Wide Web. Applying the critical theories of Deleuze and Guattari, Derrida, Barthes,...

Credibility

Credibility   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,660 words

...of the speaker. Aristotle (384–322 bce ). His Rhetoric begins with very critical remarks about the preoccupation of orators and writers of rhetorical handbooks with a rhetorical strategy that relies mostly on the speaker's ability to influence the audience's emotions (1.1.1354b20). In his own rhetorical theory, he limits the role of emotions by adding, and assigning greater importance to, two other modes of persuasion: the rhetorical syllogism or enthymeme (1355a7), and the character ( ēthos ) of the speaker, which he calls the most important mode of...

Arrangement

Arrangement   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
7,188 words

...The fact that the same basic sequence of events can nevertheless be arranged in different representations illustrates how narratives can be strategically shaped for different rhetorical effects. While literary genres (e.g., Bildungsroman , film noir, haiku) are described by their content and/or formal devices, rhetorical genres (e.g., funeral orations, documentaries, summations before a jury) are more typically described in terms of the presumed acts performed or accomplished. Work on rhetorical genres flowered in the 1970s, stimulated by the criticism of...

History

History   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
7,099 words

...Roman imperialism in a work of many volumes, criticized other historians for inventing speeches while practicing similar invention himself (e.g., 12.25a–25b and 36.1). Diodorus Siculus , a Greek historian who was roughly contemporary with Sallust, complained about the number and length of the speeches that some historians inserted into their works, saying that they cause too great an interruption of the narrative (20.1.1–2.3). The classic example of a speechifying historian is Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who wrote in Greek and published the first book of his...

Fallacies

Fallacies   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
4,433 words

...English translation of La logique, ou l'art de penser, first published 1662. Bacon, Francis . The Advancement of Learning . Edited by G. W. Kitchen and with an introduction by A. Johnston . London, 1973. First published 1605. Barth, Else M. , and J. L. Martens . “ Argumentum Ad Hominem: From Chaos to Formal Dialectic. The Method of Dialogue Tableaus as a Tool in the Theory of Fallacy. ” Logique et Analyse , n.s. 20 (1977), pp. 76–96. Biro, John , and Harvey Siegel . “Normativity, Argumentation and an Epistemic Theory of Fallacies.” In Argumentation...

Music

Music   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
6,176 words

...musicae novae . Strasbourg, 1612. Marchettus of Padua . “Pomerium.” In Corpus scriptorum de musica , edited by G. Reaney , vol. vi. Rome, 1961. First published c.1325. Mattheson, Johann . Der vollkommene Capellmeister (The Compleat Music Master). Hamburg, 1739. Mersenne, Marin . Traité de l'Harmonie Universelle . Paris, 1627. Müller, H. “Der ‘tractatus musicae scientiae’ des Gobelinus Person (1358–1421).” In Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch 20 (1907). Neidhardt, Johann Georg . Sectio canonis harmonici . Königsberg, 1724. Nettesheim, Agrippa von . De...

Orality and literacy

Orality and literacy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
4,205 words

...historical context of archaic Greece. Nagy, G. Homeric Questions . Austin, 1996. Addresses ten basic “misreadings” of Parry and Lord; provides explanatory models for the historical contingencies of transition from oral to written traditions. Nagy, G. 1998. “Homer as ‘Text’ and the Poetics of Cross-Reference.” In Script Oralia , edited by C. Ehler and U. Schaefer , vol. 95, Verschriftung und Verschriftlichung: Aspekte des Medienwechsels in verschiedenen Kulturen und Epochen, pp. 78–87. Tübingen, 1998. Nagy, G. “ Reading Greek Poetry Aloud: Evidence from...

Style

Style   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
9,178 words

...Poetics , edited by Heinrich F. Plett , pp. 133–146. Berlin, 1994. Müller, Wolfgang G. “ Die traditionelle Rhetorik und einige Stilkonzepte des 20. Jahrhunderts. ” Die Aktualität der Rhetorik , edited by Heinrich F. Plett , pp. 160–175. Munich, 1996. Müller, Wolfgang G. “ Stil. ” Historisches Wörterbuch der Philosophie . X, pp. 150–159. Basel 1999. Murphy, James J. Rhetoric in the Middle Ages . Berkeley, 1974. Murphy, James J. Renaissance Rhetoric. A Short-Title Catalogue of Works on Rhetorical Theory from the Beginning of Printing to A.D....

Art

Art   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,767 words

...“because the supreme sorrow could not be portrayed by his brush” ( quoniam summum illum luctum penicillo non posset imitari ) (Cicero, Orator 21. 72–74). Quintilian, in his discussion of the place of memory ( memoria ) in the art of the orator ( Institutio oratoria 11.2.17–20; 21–22; 23–26) offers an account of the role of both mental images ( imagines ) and pictorial images ( picturae, simulacra ), the latter in the sense of artifacts produced for the purpose of arresting, holding onto the former. The focus in this case is on the mental image rather...

Homiletics

Homiletics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,354 words

...statement of neo-orthodox attack on rhetorical homiletics with brief survey of earlier German theorists. Buttrick, David . Homiletic: Moves and Structures . Philadelphia, 1987. Influential modern treatment with extensive bibliography. Fant, C. E., Jr. and W. M. Pinson, Jr. 20 Centuries of Great Preaching: An Encyclopedia of Preaching . 13 vols. Waco, Tex., 1971. Hirst, Russel . “ Ethos and the Conservative Tradition in Nineteenth-Century American Protestant Homiletics.” In Ethos: New Essays in Rhetorical and Critical Theory , edited by James S....

Occasion

Occasion   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,586 words

...and place of the event (see Cicero's Orator 71), which are all aspects of occasion. [ See Decorum .] The sophistic treatise known as Dissoi logoi or Dialexeis , which apparently dates from the beginning of the fourth century bce , enunciates a temporal kairotic ideal (2.20) as a general guide for human conduct. Alcidamas , a student of Gorgias, writes of rhetorical kairos primarily in its temporal sense. By contrast, his contemporary Isocrates ( 436–338 bce ), a student of both Gorgias and Prodicus, conceived of kairos in oratory as proper...

Politics

Politics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
13,279 words

...of marginal groups ( 1998 , p. 11). Other scholars, such as Cal Logue have developed the idea of speaker status , noting that the powerful enjoy media access, communal deference, and expanded opportunities to promote their interest-based agendas ( Logue and Miller , 1995 , p. 20). Although the origin of the term is in dispute, the subaltern voice expresses the belief that powerless people speak largely through a form of ventriloquism. The powerless may move their lips but the words they speak belong to the powerful. Like Logue, Orbe has resurrected the...

Contingency and Probability

Contingency and Probability   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
10,817 words

...a stability and regularity which is intrinsic to the nature of the thing which is the ground for the eikos proposition derived from that nature. A stabilized, but contingent (i.e., not necessary), fact can be known ( Metaphysics 1027a20–21), and it can even be used in a demonstrative syllogism ( Analytica priora 32b20 ff.). Obviously eikos is something relatively stabilized and knowable ( Analytica priora 70a4 ff.) and, as such, offers ground for reasonable inference to further knowledge. ( Grimaldi , 1980 , p. 62) Thus, one begins to read the...

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