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Epideictic genre

Epideictic genre  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
Ancient writers, beginning with Aristotle, identify three genres of rhetorical discourse: symbouleutic, dicanic, and epideictic (cf. e.g., Aristotle Rhetoric 1358a36–58b20; Rhetorica ad Alexandrum ...
style

style  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
[Ge]A term borrowed from art history and used in archaeology to refer to groups of distinctive decorative motifs.
clipping

clipping   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
34 words

...Process of word‐formation in which an existing form is abbreviated. E.g. fan ‘devotee, enthusiast’ was formed in the late 19th century by shortening fanatic , hi‐fi in the mid-20th century by shortening high fidelity...

functional category

functional category   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
98 words

...category One of a set of syntactic categories distinguished, e.g. in theories of Universal Grammar , from a set of lexical categories. Thus, in one scheme dating from the late 20th century, complementizers and e.g. determiners are classed as functional; nouns and e.g. prepositions as lexical. A functional head is a head (1) which belongs to such a category: e.g. a complementizer (or ‘C’) seen as head of a complementizer phrase (or ‘CP’), or a ‘T’ as head of a TP . Compare a ‘grammatical category’ as one having grammatical meaning...

article

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
53 words

...A word or part of a word whose basic role is to mark noun phrases as definite or indefinite : e.g. definite the in the girl , indefinite a in a girl . Traditionally a distinct part of speech ; but usually described, since the mid-20th century, as a subclass of determiners...

sandhi

sandhi   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
51 words

...Ancient Indian term for the modification and fusion of sounds at or across the boundaries of grammatical units. E.g. short - a + i - fused in Sanskrit, both within words and across word boundaries, to - e -. Introduced into the terminology of 20th-century linguistics by Bloomfield ...

Numerals

Numerals   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
559 words

...so that ‘15’ is ‘10 + 5’, rather than ‘3 × 5’. But several languages, e.g. Mixtec and Welsh, preserve hints of a quinary system for the numbers from 16 to 19; e.g., Welsh ‘16’ is ‘1+10+5’. Many languages use 20 as a further higher base. There are traces of this in familiar European languages, as in French quatre-vingt ‘4 × 20 = 80’. Other languages (e.g. Yoruba) are firmly vigesimal (base-20). Sporadic instances of yet higher bases which are not powers of a lower base occur, e.g. 40 in ancient Hawaiian. The arithmetic operations of addition and...

-eme

-eme   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
108 words

...to form terms for basic linguistic units. Thus phoneme , for a basic unit of phonology; morpheme , for a basic unit of morphology; lexeme , for the basic unit of the lexicon. For others see e.g . moneme ; morphophoneme ; sememe . Characteristic above all of the mid-20th century. Also extended, by analogy with the phoneme, to units other than those of speech: e.g. ‘ chereme ’ (from the Greek word for ‘hand’) for the basic unit of sign language; ‘ proxeme ’ ( see proxemics ) for a distinctive unit of distance etc. between speakers; ‘ narreme ’, for a unit...

slash

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The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
116 words

...under which a rule ( 2 ) or operation applies. Thus a rule in phonology ‘s → z / V—V’ means ‘s is changed to z when it is between vowels’. 2. Especially in the mid-20th century, to distinguish a representation of phonemes from a phonetic transcription: e.g. English [çuː] ( hue or Hugh ) seen as phonemically /hjuː/ or /hjuw/. 3. As in ordinary usage, in representing alternatives. E.g. He saw him / himself conflates the sentences He saw him and He saw himself ; I saw him /* himself indicates that I saw him is grammatical while I saw himself ...

logical relations

logical relations   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
69 words

...relations Semantic relations among the parts of a sentence as opposed, especially by grammarians of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, to ‘grammatical relations’ of agreement, government of cases, etc. E.g. in A majority of criminals is stupid , majority would be ‘grammatically’ the head noun and is would be in grammatical agreement with it. But ‘logically’ a majority of qualifies criminals , like most in most criminals...

Neolinguistics

Neolinguistics   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
76 words

...Movement in Italy in the first half of the 20th century, led by M. G. Bartoli under the influence of Croce ’s philosophy of language. Influential mainly in the field of areal linguistics (‘linguistica spaziale’), especially for the insight that, where different words with a similar meaning are distributed across related languages over a large area, those in peripheral regions are likely to be older and those in the centre to be...

adjective

adjective   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
137 words

...to. One function therefore is as a modifier : e.g. tall in tall men is an adjective modifying men . Another is in predicative position: e.g. that of tall in These men are tall . Adjectives were included in antiquity in the same part of speech as nouns. Distinguished in the later Middle Ages, as ‘nouns adjective’ in contrast to ‘nouns substantive ’; and so called, still, in the early decades of the 20th century. An adjectival element is one either forming or having the role of adjectives: e.g. - less in clueless is an adjectival affix;...

Word and Paradigm

Word and Paradigm   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
138 words

...E.g., in Italian, cantavo ‘I was singing’ is characterized as a whole by its oppositions, as first person, to the second and third persons cantavi , cantava ; as singular, to the plural cantavamo ‘we were singing’; as imperfect, to the present canto ‘I am singing’; as indicative, to the subjunctive cantassi . Any division of the word into smaller elements (say, cant-a-v-o ) is then secondary. Distinguished by Hockett from Item and Arrangement , Item and Process . For an alternative typology, in the light of accounts developed later in the 20th...

lexical diffusion

lexical diffusion   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
164 words

...diffusion The gradual spread of a phonetic or other change across the vocabulary of a language or across a speech community: e.g. the spread of [k]>[ʃ] (in chat , chanter , etc.) across north-west France, attested at the beginning of the 20th century by the survey for the Atlas linguistique de la France . In the ideal case, the spread would be simultaneously in both respects. So, at a given moment, ( a ) some words will have changed, or will be used more often in the changed form, while others will not have changed, or will be used less often in a...

morphophoneme

morphophoneme   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
189 words

...Unit posited in the mid-20th century to account for alternations in morphology which are recurrent but not automatic . E.g. knives or loaves has a [v] ([nʌɪv], [ləʊv]) where knife or loaf has an [f]. The alternation is recurrent, since it is found in more than one word. But it is not automatic, since it is not found e.g. in oaf and oafs , both of which have [f], or in hive and hives , both of which have [v]. To account for it, forms such as knife and loaf were said to end in a morphophoneme ‘F’, identical to [f] except that,...

Meso-American Languages

Meso-American Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
791 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of twenty: 30 = 20 + 10, 40 = 2 × 20, 50 = 2 × 20 + 10,100 = 5 × 20, 400 = 20 × 20 (d) Absence of verb-final word order—although MA is surrounded by S[ubject] O[bject] V[erb] languages, all languages in the area have VOS, VSO, or SVO order (e) An extensive list of semantic loan translations, e.g. ‘boa’ = ‘deer-snake’, ‘egg’ = ‘bird-bone/stone’, ‘lime’ = ‘stone-(ash)’, ‘knee’ = ‘leg-head’, and ‘wrist’ = ‘hand-neck’ A possible sixth feature is the absence in MA of switch-reference constructions, which are found in bordering languages (e.g. Jicaque,...

Teberan-Pawaian Languages

Teberan-Pawaian Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
182 words

...three villages on the Erave River are heavily bilingual in Folopa. They also use Tok Pisin. Folopa: also called Podopa, Polopa, Podoba, Foraba. 3,000 speakers in Gulf Province, Baimuru district, Kerabi valley; also in Southern Highlands Province, 20 villages. Dialects are Ro (Keai, Worugl), Bara (Harahui, Harahu), Sesa (Mamisa, Songu, Ibukairu), Kewah, Tebera, Aurei, Waraga, Pupitau, Boro, Suri, Siligi, Sopese, Keba-Wopasali. Closest to Dadibi. Pawaia: also called Pavaia, Sira, Aurama, Tudahwe, Yasa. 4,000 speakers in Simbu Province, Karimui district, and...

English

English   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
182 words

...Also promoted as a second language throughout most of the British Empire and in countries similarly occupied by the USA; hence an official language in e.g. India or Nigeria. As a second language it has several regional varieties (Indian English, West African English, Singapore English, etc.); also dominant as an international language, increasingly in forms based on American English, since the mid-20th...

Polish

Polish   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,016 words
Illustration(s):
1

...mark on the Polish vocabulary are Latin, Czech, Lithuanian, and, especially since the mid-20th century, English. The earliest evidence of Polish is provided by medieval documents written in Latin, but containing the Polish names of persons, places, and tribes. Particular significance is attributed to the 410 such names embedded in a papal bull of 1136 , known as the Bull of Gniezno. From them, we can see that the changes *ě > a and * e > o had already taken place; e.g. the name Kwiatek , derived from * květ ŭ ‘flower’, is spelled Quatek ; the place-name...

level

level   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
268 words

...of a word would not usually be relevant to its role in syntax; the precise construction in which a word stands would equally be irrelevant, in general, to its phonology. Theories of levels were a central topic in structural linguistics , especially in the middle decades of the 20th century. Some distinguished ordered series of procedures, in which one phase of analysis must precede another: thus, in particular, that of Zellig Harris and other Post-Bloomfieldians . Others have proposed a hierarchy of greater or lesser degrees of abstraction , ranging...

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