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An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...manifestations of the ongoing debate over the nature and function of art exhibition and the social composition of its viewing public. The boisterous early years of the Society of Artists exhibition are a case in point. In 1761 their exhibition was so popular and their estimated 20,000 viewers so rambunctious that thirteen pounds and six shillings were laid out afterwards to repair windows broken during the show. In an attempt to regulate not only behaviour but also the class of people attending its show, the Society instituted a one-shilling admission fee...

Sensibility

Sensibility   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,039 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... & S. Shapin , eds., Natural Order: Historical Studies of Scientific Culture , Beverly Hills, Calif., & London, 1979; Pocock, J. G. A. , Virtue, Commerce and History: Essays on Political Thought and History, Chiefly in the Eighteenth Century , Cambridge, 1985; Poovey, M. , The Proper Lady and the Woman Writer , Chicago, 1984; Porter, R. , and Brewer, J. , eds., Consumption and the World of Goods , London, 1993; Rousseau, G. S. , ‘ Nerves, Spirits, and Fibres: Towards Defining the Origins of Sensibility ’, Blue Guitar , 2 (1976), 125–53; Shammas, C. , ...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,165 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...*policing, 7 ]. Violent protests and radical political agitation were most likely to occur in periods of crisis created by economic depression at home and revolution abroad. Bad harvests and industrial depression were particularly severe in the mid- and late-1790s, 1810–13 , 1816–20 , and 1829–32 , while the American and French *wars [2] produced high taxes, inflation, financial instability, and an economy distorted by wartime demands and commercial warfare. Soon after the end of the Napoleonic war in 1815 the economy went into recession, and stayed...

Natural Philosophy (Science)

Natural Philosophy (Science)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,186 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...study of nature and morality; but moral philosophy was also said to depend on observations and reasoning from experiments. Short, and circular, responses such as these immediately create unease, especially when the work, in the case of the Britannica , contained long articles (20–110 pages) on subjects such as astronomy, *botany , chemistry, mechanics, and optics. Indeed, the entries on ‘natural philosophy’ refer the reader to these articles on the various sciences. Hence the contemporary encyclopedias do not offer a simple account of the meaning of...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,949 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...manuals, the *Royal Academy , and a small group of élite practitioners, patrons, and connoisseurs. During the following decades a middle-class, commercial cultural market revolutionized architectural media. New art periodicals like Elmes 's Annals of the Fine Arts ( 1816–20 ) and the Library of the Fine Arts ( 1831–2 ) published on architecture, as did more general magazines like the Quarterly Review , the Edinburgh Review , the Westminster Review , the Foreign Quarterly Review, Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine , the Athenaeum, Fraser's Magazine,...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the mass of people, as it would a generation later [ see London *keyboards ]. Most aspects of musical life which we loosely associate with nineteenth-century Britain were similarly incipient or underdeveloped. Amateur choral societies, which began to flourish in most towns of 20,000 people or more by mid-century, were in 1830 thin on the ground and predominantly male: the Concert of Ancient Music, for example, still had a professional choir with boy trebles. Similarly the entirely male brass band ‘movement’ had scarcely begun [ see *military bands ]....

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...no doubt reflects the importance of courtship in the lives of the readers, and of marriage as the one sure means to economic survival for many. The average age of marriage for the majority of the lower orders in most of Britain (excluding Ireland) was quite late, around the mid-20s, and the extensive period during which courtship loomed large was reason enough for young women to want to read or consult fortune-tellers about the subject of marriage, and to be reassured that they could have recourse to supernatural help in seeing, or even finding, their future...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...human labour. Antipathy to urban growth had been a constant in utopian thought. More had commended the rotation of population between country and city, and as recently as the 1790s the Godwinian An Essay on Civil Government had proposed a limitation of cities to a population of 20,000. Owen's communities were to have only a few thousand inhabitants, and thus, he hoped, the sense of immediacy and intimacy of a village could be preserved. His communitarianism was thus chiefly rooted, like the agrarian ideals of Spence, William *Cobbett , and the great ...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...The dignity of labour was underlined not only by the fact that Christ had come to earth as a working man but also by a theology which posited a special relationship between God and the working classes. After Peterloo, a Halifax reformer had insisted in the Manchester Observer ( 20 November 1819 ) that ‘the Voice of the People is the Voice of God’ and that the ‘common people constitute the bulk and strength of the Kingdom’. By 1839 a more precise idea had developed: while God had created the earth as potential abundance, it was labour which actually turned...

Wilkes, John

Wilkes, John (1725–1797)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
931 words

...of the county of Middlesex. [See also Censorship ; and Journals, Newspapers, and Gazettes , subentry on Great Britain .] Maier, Pauline . John Wilkes and American Disillusionment with Britain . William and Mary Quarterly 20 (1963), 373–395. Rudé, George . Wilkes and Liberty . Oxford, 1962. Thomas, Peter D. G. John Wilkes. A Friend to Liberty . Oxford, 1996. Williamson, A. Wilkes . London, 1974. Nigel...

Scott, Walter

Scott, Walter (1771–1832)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
745 words

...by James C. Corson. Oxford, 1979. A complete edition of Scott's letters is still not available. Sir Walter Scott: Selected Poems . Edited by Thomas Crawford . Oxford, 1972. Works about Scott Forbes, Duncan . The Rationalism of Sir Walter Scott . Cambridge Journal 7 (1953), 20–35. Reprinted in Critical Essays on Sir Walter Scott: The Waverly Novels, edited by Harry E. Shaw , pp. 83–97. New York, 1996. Addresses Scott's relationship to the Enlightenment in this article. Hewitt, David . Walter Scott. In The History of Scottish Literature, vol. 3, The...

Graffigny, Françoise de

Graffigny, Françoise de (1695–1758)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,265 words

...de Graffigny. In her Writing Love: Letters, Women, and the Novel in France, 1605–1776 , pp. 84–125. Carbondale and Edwardsville, Ill., 1995. MacArthur, Elizabeth . Devious Narratives: Refusal of Closure in Two Eighteenth-Century Novels . Eighteenth-Century Studies 21 (1987), 1–20. Miller, Nancy K. The Knot, the Letter, and the Book: Graffigny's Peruvian Letters . In her Subject to Change: Reading Feminist Writing , pp. 125–161. New York, 1988. Showalter, English . The Beginnings of Madame de Graffigny's Literary Career: A Study in the Social History of...

Saint Petersburg Academy

Saint Petersburg Academy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,393 words

...also Academies , subentry on Russia ; Euler, Leonard ; Explorations and Contact ; Mathematics ; and Natural History .] Boss, Valentin . Newton and Russia: The Early Influence, 1698–1796 . Cambridge, Mass., 1972. Part 2 (chaps. 8–20) specifically on “Newton and the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences.” Black, J. L. G.-F. Müller and the Imperial Russian Academy . Kingston and Montreal, 1986. A wide-ranging study of one of the most important members of the Academy, historiographer, journalist and archivist, from 1725 to 1765. Filippov, M. S. , ed. ...

Mysticism

Mysticism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,372 words

...Paris, 1917; repr., Geneva, 1970. Chevallier, Marjolaine . Pierre Poiret, 1646–1719: Du protestantisme à la mystique . Geneva, 1994. Cruz Moliner, José de La . Espagne, du 18 ème siècle au 20 ème siècle. In Dictionnaire de spiritualité . Paris, 1937–1995. Vol. 4, col. 1178–1183. Gusdorf, G. Dieu, la nature, l'homme au siècle des lumières . Paris, 1976. Gusdorf, G. Naissance de la conscience romantique au siècle des lumières . Paris, 1976. Le Brun, Jacques . Censure préventive et litérature religieuse en France au début du XVIII e siècle. Revue...

Lewis and Clark Expedition

Lewis and Clark Expedition   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,714 words

... ( 1787 ). The information would make possible greater understanding of the ways in which the earth and its peoples functioned. It would be an important moment in the progress of mankind in general, and of the United States in particular. Planning In his instructions (dated 20 June 1803 ), Jefferson demanded that Lewis do what he, Rush, and the members of the American Philosophical Society did as a matter of course: serve as the eyes and ears of the world. He wanted Lewis to record everything. He was to “take observations of latitude & longitude, at all...

Austria

Austria   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,310 words

...Zensur in der theresianischen Reform . Vienna, 1970. Traces the passage of Muratorian Reform Catholicism into the Habsburg monarchy and analyzes the consequences. Klingenstein, Grete , and Richard G. Plaschka , eds. Österreich im Europa der Aufklärung: Kontinuität und Zäsur in Europa zur Zeit Maria Theresias und Josephs II. Internationales Symposion in Wien 20–23. Okt. 1980 . Vienna, 1985. Too wide-ranging for a common theme, but contains some essays essential for understanding the Austrian Enlightenment. Kovács, Elisabeth , ed. Katholische Aufklärung und...

Newton, Isaac

Newton, Isaac (1642–1727)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
3,934 words

... Samuel Clarke ensued. Newton also challenged Leibniz's claim to priority in the discovery of calculus. Petty disputes continued with John Flamsteed , the Astronomer Royal, until he, like Hooke and Leibniz, succumbed to mortality. Newton's Legacy Newton's own end came on 20 March 1727 . Anticipating his death, he evidently began to think of his image in posterity. Before his final illness he burned a number of his manuscripts. His last days were spent preparing for publication his Chronology of the Ancient Kingdoms Amended ( 1728 ), a work that...

Jesuits

Jesuits   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
7,781 words

...des jésuites XVI e –XVIII e ) siècles. Paris, 1978. Hellyers, M. Jesuit Physics in Eighteenth-Century Germany: Some Important Continuities. In The Jesuits: Cultures, Sciences, and the Arts, 1540–1773 , edited by J. W. O'malley , G. A. Bailey , S. J. Harris , and T. F. Kennedy , pp. 538–554. Toronto, 1999. Pachtler, G. M. Ratio Studiorum et Institutiones Scholasticas Societatis Jesu par Germaniam olim Vigentes. Vol. 3, Berlin, 1890. Vol. 4, Berlin, 1894. Dominique Julia Translated from French by Betsy Wing Role in Politics The role of the Society of...

Virtue

Virtue   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
4,377 words

...to produce a reevaluation or rescheduling of virtues. The Decline of Courage and Rise of Punctuality Charles de Secondat Montesquieu ( 1689–1755 ), in his enormously influential L'esprit des lois ( 1748 ), commented that the natural effect of commerce is to lead to peace (book 20). This is indicative of a shift away from martial virtues like courage and values like glory to what the Scottish philosopher and political economist Adam Smith, in his Theory of Moral Sentiments ( 1759 ), following Montesquieu's terminology, labeled the “gentle virtues” of...

Journals, Newspapers, and Gazettes

Journals, Newspapers, and Gazettes   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
10,055 words

...to the French embassy in The Hague, and later François Bernard wrote in the weekly Le Politique Hollandais ( 1780–1785 ) on republican themes, the American Revolution, and freedom of the press. The first Dutch weekly expressing political opinions went into circulation on 20 January 1781 : De Post van den Neder-Rhyn ( 1781–1787 , 1798 ), edited by the Patriot Pieter 't Hoen , a man of strong convictions. It was a great success, reaching a circulation of 3,400; newspapers in Haarlem and Amsterdam, both in Dutch, reached 4,000 to 6,000 subscribers,...

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