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G-20 and Multilateral Economic Cooperation

G-20 and Multilateral Economic Cooperation   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,644 words
Illustration(s):
1

...-20 and Multilateral Economic Cooperation MFIs and Developing Countries India has a long association with multilateral financial institutions (MFIs), the most prominent of which are the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), frequently referred to as the ‘Bretton Woods Institutions’. India was one of the few developing countries that participated in the Bretton Woods Conference, which set up these institutions after the Second World War, even before India formally gained Independence. Its role in multilateral economic cooperation, however, is more...

Multilateralism

Multilateralism   Reference library

Nicola P. Contessi

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,663 words

...Economic and Monetary Union.” Security Studies 5 (1996): 261–306. Hampson, Fen Osler . “Deconstructing Multilateral Cooperation.” In International Cooperation: The Extents and Limits of Multilateralism , edited by I. William Zartman and Saadia Touval , pp. 60–77. (Cambridge, U.K., 2010). Hampson, Fen Osler , and Paul Heinbecker . “The ‘New’ Multilateralism of the Twenty-First Century.” Global Governance 17 (2011): 299–310. Ikenberry, G. John , and Charles A. Kupchan . “Socialization and Hegemonic Power.” International Organization 44 (1990):...

Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation

Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation   Reference library

Peter D. Drysdale

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,244 words

...that are shaping the evolution of APEC and other regional arrangements are how to relate the regional cooperation agenda to the G-20 process and what is the appropriate framework for political and security dialogue alongside regional economic dialogues. Japan hosted the APEC Summit in Yokohama in 2010 , after which follow the United States, Russia, and Indonesia. [ See also Association of Southeast Asian Nations ; Interdependence ; Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development ; and World Trade Organization . ] Bibliography APEC . http://www...

Intelligence Cooperation

Intelligence Cooperation   Reference library

Timothy W. Crawford

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,405 words

...for theory to guide empirical reconstruction and analysis ( Aldrich 1998 :335). Recent political developments have also heightened the need for more theory-informed intelligence cooperation research. In the 1990s, multilateral intelligence cooperation emerged in support of United Nations ( UN ) and other international organization ( IO ) security activities (e.g., in weapons inspections, peacekeeping, and support for war crimes tribunals). Post–9/11 efforts to broaden and deepen international liaison against terrorism, what one author describes as a...

International Cooperation Theory

International Cooperation Theory   Reference library

Xinyuan Dai and Duncan Snidal

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,931 words

... Downs, G.W. , Rocke, D.M. , and Barsoom, P.N. (1996) Is the Good News about Compliance Good News about Cooperation? International Organization 50 (3), 379–406. Downs, G.W. , Rocke, D.M. , and Barsoom, P.N. (1998) Managing the Evolution of Multilateralism. International Organization 52 (2), 397–419. Drezner, D.W. (1999) The Sanctions Paradox: Economic Statecraft and International Relations . New York: Cambridge University Press. Drezner, D.W. (2000) Bargaining, Enforcement, and Multilateral Sanctions: When Is Cooperation...

Liberal Institutionalism

Liberal Institutionalism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,754 words

...and laws to prevent wars and promote cooperation among nations. Steven Lamy ( 2011 , p. 121) mentions that liberal institutionalism greatly built itself on the ideas of functional-integration and regional-integration studies developed between the 1940s and 1960s. These studies have extensively used European efforts at cooperation, beginning with the establishment of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951 , to show how states move ahead to establish peace and prosperity while surrendering some of their sovereign powers to multilateral...

Formal International Institutions and the Regulation of Flows of Goods and Services

Formal International Institutions and the Regulation of Flows of Goods and Services   Reference library

Marc Froese

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,708 words

...Eurasian Economic Community (EEC), Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). The Middle East and North Africa : Arab Maghreb Union (ANU), Arab League (AL), Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU), Arab Cooperation Council (ACC), Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, Pan-Arab Free Trade Agreement (PAFTA). The Pacific Islands : Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement (ANZCERTA), Pacific Islands Forum (PIF), South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement (SPARTECA). The Literature of Emerging Multilateral Trade...

Non-Aligned Movement

Non-Aligned Movement   Reference library

Shirley Hune and Jayantha Dhanapala

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,151 words

...and ethnic conflicts within states and among states need to be resolved. North-south disparities replace East-West tensions as the central focus of inequities among states and regions and pose different problems and solutions. The UN remains a center of multilateral decision making for the NAM, but it faces many challenges to restructure itself. Disarmament efforts took a new turn with India's and Pakistan's nuclear testing in 1998 . The international financial crisis had worldwide ramifications with its political and economic dimensions, with the G-20...

Globalization

Globalization   Reference library

David Held and Anthony McGrew

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,557 words

...the existing multilateral institutions of global economic surveillance—especially the Group of 7 (G-7), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank (WB), and the World Trade Organization (WTO)—largely function to nurture this nascent “global market civilization.” In this “runaway world,” nation states are becoming “transitional modes of economic organization and regulation,” since they can no longer effectively manage or regulate their own national economies. Economic globalization spells the end of the welfare state and social democracy. In...

Globalization

Globalization   Reference library

David Held and Anthony McGrew

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,537 words

...the existing multilateral institutions of global economic surveillance—especially the Group of 7 (G-7), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank (WB), and the World Trade Organization (WTO)—largely function to nurture this nascent “global market civilization.” In this “runaway world,” nation states are becoming “transitional modes of economic organization and regulation,” since they can no longer effectively manage or regulate their own national economies. Economic globalization spells the end of the welfare state and social democracy. In...

Brazil

Brazil   Reference library

Alfred P. Montero

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,890 words

...period of military rule ( 1964–1985 ), and then, since the early 1990s, to a reengagement with the United States during a sustained period of democracy. This last phase coincided with a larger policy of engaging with a broader array of neighbors in Latin America and other significant countries, such as China, India, and Russia. Brazil has favored ties created through both multilateral and bilateral forms of cooperation, and especially those that satisfy the country's interest in promoting its own economic growth and development. Historic Foundations of Brazilian...

International Organizations and Economic Governance

International Organizations and Economic Governance   Reference library

Wesley W. Widmaier

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
7,849 words

... September 1973 to include the Japanese finance minister, giving birth to the G5, and, with the addition of Canada and Italy, the eventual G7. The G7 provided a focal point for economic consultation and crisis-response over the remainder of the decade, most prominently in the London and Bonn summits of 1977 and 1978 , which saw explicit efforts at macroeconomic policy coordination. Over the 1980s, similar informal “clubs” would enable macroeconomic and financial cooperation. For example, as Charles Lipson ( 1981 ) argued, sovereign debt rescheduling...

Regional Governance and Environmental Problems

Regional Governance and Environmental Problems   Reference library

Jörg Balsiger and Stacy D. VanDeveer

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,406 words
Illustration(s):
1

...regional environmental cooperation, three sets of activities can be identified, involving: (1) overcoming challenges to international cooperation and establishing collaborative international institutions for scientific and technical work; (2) multilateral policy-making; and (3) making greater use of such institutions, once built, to improve domestic implementation and environmental quality. Later stages of cooperation focus greater attention on implementing growing lists of environmental commitments and insuring that state capacity and environmental quality...

marine resources

marine resources   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
543 words

...the exclusive economic zone . Beyond what are the legitimate exclusive fishery zones of States, fishing is one of the freedoms of the high seas: art. 2(2) of the Geneva Convention on the High Seas of 29 April 1958 ( 450 U.N.T.S. 82 ); arts. 87 and 116–120 of the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea. Fisheries on the high seas may be regulated by agreement between States whose vessels fish in areas of the high seas where, for conservation or other reasons, some regulation is called for: e.g., Convention on the Future Multilateral Cooperation in the Northwest...

Negotiation

Negotiation   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
7,468 words

...Conference on Environment and Development . The Hague, The Netherlands: Nijhoff, 1994. Spector, Bertram I ., Sjöstedt Gunnar , and I. William Zartman , eds. Getting It Done: Post-Agreement Negotiations for International Regime . Washington, D.C.: U.S. Institute of Peace, 2002. Voge, J . Management of Complexity. In Science and the Praxis of Complexity, edited by Shuhei Aida , et al. Tokyo, Japan: UN University Press, 1985. Warsh, D . The Idea of Economic Complexity . London: Viking, 1984. Winham, Gilbert . Multilateral Economic Negotiation . New York:...

Latin America Economic Cooperation

Latin America Economic Cooperation   Reference library

Gary Hufbauer and Barbara Kotschwar

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,095 words

...and to encourage long-range economic and human development, including a food-for-peace program. The 1960 Act of Bogota, for example, contained a $500 million fund for initiatives to “combat illiteracy, improve the productivity and use of land [in Latin America], to wipe out disease, attack archaic tax and land-tenure structures, provide educational opportunities, and offer a broad range of projects designed to make the benefits of increasing abundance available to all.” The agenda was also designed to promote economic integration, to foster cooperation in...

Ecumenical Movement

Ecumenical Movement   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,247 words

...issues. Major questions now include how to involve more Evangelical, Charismatic, and Pentecostal Churches which have so far taken little part in the ecumenical movement, and whether Councils of Churches are purely the servants of their member Churches, or also have a prophetic role in challenging them to take further steps towards visible unity and to increase their cooperation in Christian witness and service. See also reunion and World Council of Churches . G. K. A. Bell (ed.), Documents on Christian Unity 1920–4 (1924); id., 2nd ser....

Security Regimes: Collective Security and Security Communities

Security Regimes: Collective Security and Security Communities   Reference library

Bruce Cronin

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,231 words

...opportunities and challenges for solidifying and expanding the global collective security system. These conditions have been facilitated by two factors: (1) the proliferation of universal membership organizations with broad mandates to address a wide range of issues in global politics; and (2) the domination of multilateralism as the legitimate institutional form of cooperation ( Hewson and Sinclair 1999 ; Gruber 2000 ; Nye and Donanu 2000 ; Diehl 2001 ). Since the end of World War II, there has been a dramatic growth in the number and intrusiveness...

Global and Regional Cooperation on Migration

Global and Regional Cooperation on Migration   Reference library

Andrew Geddes

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,271 words

...Treaty in 1993 as EU citizens). Meyers ( 2002 ) analyses how and why states agree multilateral, regional agreements on labor migration. He finds them more likely to succeed if embedded within broader regional arrangements among states with some similarity in levels of economic development. This helps explain the relative success of cooperation and integration in Europe and the difficulty of establishing similar arrangements in other parts of the world. When successful economic integration with provision for labor migration has occurred, it has...

Foreign Aid

Foreign Aid   Reference library

Tobias Pfutze

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,664 words

... Foreign aid, technically called Official Development Assistance (ODA), is defined by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) Development Assistance Committee (DAC) as consisting of grants or concessional loans (with at least a 25 percent grant element) that (a) originate in the official sector, (b) are destined for low- or middle-income countries, and (c) have as their principal aim the promotion of economic development and welfare. The last point implies that expenditures that primarily follow commercial goals or are directed at...

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