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Servicemen’s Readjustment Act

Servicemen’s Readjustment Act   Reference library

William M. Tuttle Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
306 words

...or “ GI Bill ,” as it is commonly known, authorized payments for tuition, books, and living expenses for up to four years of college or vocational school, low-interest mortgages for homeowners, loans for veterans to buy farms and start businesses, and a “readjustment allowance” of $20 per week while veterans sought employment. In important ways, the GI Bill shaped the economic and social history of postwar America . More than a million veterans enrolled in colleges in 1946 —half of that year’s total enrollment. By 1956 , almost 10 million men and women had...

Secure Communities

Secure Communities   Reference library

Ronald L. Mize

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,311 words

...315 66 1,158 ME 5/30/2012 5,484 22 40 62 0 0 0 1 1 1 3 MI 10/27/2009 740,106 2,372 8,371 10,743 287 281 426 66 340 65 1,465 MN 2/7/2012 116,496 1,650 3,171 4,821 128 109 144 16 89 24 510 MO 9/21/2010 413,442 977 4,577 5,554 113 114 198 74 185 50 734 MS 7/20/2010 160,569 325 1,937 2,262 47 103 193 18 127 20 508 MT 7/27/2010 28,135 49 110 159 2 4 3 0 2 0 11 NC 11/12/2008 695,441 4,519 25,883 30,402 1,315 1,166 2,020 281 1,413 512 6,707 ND 4/10/2012 12,247 84 200 284 0 2 1 0 0 0 3 NE 8/17/2010 76,362 540 3,328 3,868 134 141 182 10 43 18 528 NH 5/8/2012 12,522...

Afro-Latino/as

Afro-Latino/as   Reference library

Tanya Katerí Hernández

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,333 words

...American: A Memoir . Houston, Tex.: Arte Público Press, 2000. Inter-Agency Consultation on Race in Latin America (IAC) . “Inter-American Dialogue Race Report.” Inter-American Dialogue, 2003. https://www.thedialogue.org/PublicationFiles/Race%20Report%202003%20-%20Afro-Descendents%20in%20Latin%20America,%20How%20Many_.pdf . Jiménez Román, Miriam , and Juan Flores , eds. The Afro-Latin@ Reader: History and Culture in the United States . Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2010. “Las Culturas.” www.lasculturas.com . Logan, John R. “ How Race Counts for...

Pluralism, Legal

Pluralism, Legal   Reference library

Oren Perez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
540 words

...(2008). Teubner, Gunther. “‘Global Bukowina’: Legal Plu-ralism in the World Society.” In Global Law without a State , edited by Gunther Tuebner, pp. 3–28. Aldershot: UK; Brookfield, Vt.: Dartmouth, 1997. Twining, William. “ Normative and Legal Pluralism: A Global Perspective. ” 20 Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law 473 (2010). Oren...

Wallace, Henry A.

Wallace, Henry A.   Reference library

John J. Fry

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
581 words

...that of conservative southern congressmen within the Democratic Party. However, during the Democratic National Convention in 1940 , Roosevelt threatened to decline his nomination for president unless Wallace was his running mate. Wallace was inaugurated vice president on 20 January 1941 . Wallace promoted Roosevelt ’s policies during World War II. He traveled to the Soviet Union in 1944 , where he infamously declared that Siberian miners were well provided for. In fact, they were prisoners, and Wallace had been duped by a counterfeit village. ...

Birth Defects

Birth Defects   Reference library

Adela de la Torre and Terence Valenzuela

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,109 words

...13.40 10.10 13.30 10.70 11.80 11.70 13.10 Low-birth- weight rate 2 6.25 7.80 5.75 6.50 9.40 9.60 6.50 6.20 5.95 6.50 7.55 8.40 Infant mortality rate 3 6.28 5.33 6.03 5.12 8.88 7.18 5.29 5.77 5.52 4.47 Birth rate 4 12.50 10.90 25.80 18.10 19.00 14.60 10.80 9.00 24.20 24.00 Infant mortality rate caused by: Congenital Malformation 5 151.50 119.20 177.10 147.10 142.50 100.80 150.90 117.10 Short gestation and LBW 6 65.50 73.60 64.30 73.50 108.20 165.00 84.20 80.10 Number of Births (in 100s) 23,826 21,624 4,696 5,983 548 663 124 168 949 1,426 478 1,209 1 Preterm...

Militarization of the Border in the Late twentieth Century

Militarization of the Border in the Late twentieth Century   Reference library

Timothy Dunn and José Palafox

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
4,110 words

...Border Patrol, 2013. http://www.cbp.gov/sites/default/files/documents/U.S.%20Border%20Patrol%20Fiscal%20Year%20Staffing%20Statistics%201992-2013.pdf . US Border Patrol . Border Patrol Strategic Plan: 1994 and Beyond, National Strategy . Washington, D.C.: US Border Patrol, 1994. US Border Patrol . Sector Profile—Fiscal Year 2012 . Washington, D.C.: US Border Patrol, 2012. http://www.cbp.gov/sites/default/files/documents/U.S.%20Border%20Patrol%20Fiscal%20Year%202012%20Sector%20Profile.pdf . US Border Patrol . Sector Profile—Fiscal Year 2013 . Washington...

Capital Punishment

Capital Punishment   Reference library

Richard Moran and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
931 words

...Punishment Since George Kendall’s execution in Jamestown in 1608 , about 20,000 people have been legally put to death in America—more than 7,000 of them in the twentieth century. All thirteen colonies mandated public hanging for certain crimes against the state, person, or property. When the Bill of Rights was adopted in 1791 , the Eighth Amendment’s prohibition against “cruel and unusual” punishment was understood to outlaw torture and the intentional infliction of pain, not the death penalty itself. Over the next two centuries, however, the criminal...

Immigration and Naturalization Service

Immigration and Naturalization Service   Reference library

Ronald L. Mize

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,655 words

...U.S. Border Patrol . Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010. Immigration Policy Center . “A Humanitarian Crisis at the Border: New Estimates of Deaths Among Unauthorized Immigrants, 2007.” http://www.americanimmigrationcouncil.org/sites/default/files/docs/Crisis%20at%20the%20Border.pdf , accessed 7 January 2012. Ronald L....

Undocumented Youth Labor

Undocumented Youth Labor   Reference library

Isabel Martínez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,243 words

...ICE, unauthorized youth laborers also fear being discovered by local law enforcement officers; 287(g) agreements between the local and the federal government have further deterred individuals from reporting labor law violations ( Human Rights Watch, 2010 ). See also Agriculture and Agribusiness ; DREAM Act ; Education ; Employment Discrimination ; Labor Market, Latinos and Latinas in the ; Labor Markets, Informal ; Meatpacking Industry ; Raids ; 287(g) Agreements ; Undocumented Immigrants ; and Youth Politics . Bibliography Alexander, Ames and ...

National Security

National Security   Reference library

Roberto Lovato

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,434 words

.... “Hey, Ken Burns, Why Shun Latinos?” New York Daily News , 11 May 2007. http://www.nydailynews.com/entertainment/tv-movies/hey-ken-burns-shun-latinos-article-1.252103 . Hispanic Americans in the United States Navy . http://www.history.navy.mil/Special%20Highlights/hispanic/Hispanic%20Americans%20in%20USN.pdf . Lopez, Mark Hugo , Ana Gonzalez-Barrera , and Seth Motel . As Deportations Rise to Record Levels, Most Latinos Oppose Obama’s Policy . Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, December 2011. http://www.pewhispanic.org/2011/12/28/as-deportations-r...

Southwest, The

Southwest, The   Reference library

D. Xavier Medina Vidal

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
3,461 words

...Authority Section 287(g) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, first enacted in 1996 . In 2010 , seventeen of the seventy-two law enforcement agencies (24 percent) participating in 287(g) nationwide were in the Southwestern states: Arizona (9), Colorado (2), Missouri (1), New Mexico (1), Oklahoma (1), and Texas (3) (US Immigration and Customs Enforcement). As the potential for discriminatory practices including “racial profiling” enters the immigration policy reform debate via laws like Arizona’s SB 1070 and the 287(g) program, the extent to which...

Sustainable Development

Sustainable Development   Reference library

Lisa Meierotto

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,219 words

...20 September 2004. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2004-146/ . Peña, Devon G. “Cultural Landscapes and Biodiversity: The Ethnoecology of an Upper Rio Grande Watershed Commons.” In Ethnoecology: Situated Knowledge/Located Lives , edited by Virginia D. Nazarea , pp. 107–132. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1999. Peña, Devon G. “The Browning of the American Farm.” Colorado Central Magazine 77, no. 2 (2000). United States Department of Labor . The National Agricultural Workers Survey . Washington, D.C.: US Department of Labor, n.d. Accessed 20...

International Law and Human Rights

International Law and Human Rights   Reference library

Beth Lyon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
2,008 words

...1984, 1465 U.N.T.S. 85, 113; S. Treaty Doc. No. 100 – 20 (1988). Finbow, Robert G. The Limits of Regionalism: NAFTA’s Labour Accord , Hampshire, UK and Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate Publishing, 2006. Glendon, Mary Ann . “The Forgotten Crucible: The Latin American Influence on the Universal Human Rights Idea.” Harvard Human Rights Journal 16 (2003): 27–39. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights , Dec. 16, 1966, 999 U.N.T.S. 171; S. Exec. Doc. E, 95 -2 (1978), S. Treaty Doc. 95 – 20, 6 I.L.M. 368 (1967). International Convention on the Elimination...

Southeast, The

Southeast, The   Reference library

Elaine C. Lacy

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
4,985 words

...the area), still comprised 20 percent of county residents. As is the case nationwide, and with the exception of West Virginia and the District of Columbia, many state and local law enforcement agencies throughout the mid-Atlantic Southeast have signed 287(g) agreements with ICE in hopes of ridding their area of undocumented immigrants. Despite official arguments that the program is aimed at deporting criminals, a University of North Carolina study by Mai Thi Nguyen and Hannah Gill concludes that most of those deported through the 287(g) program in North Carolina...

Sexual Abuse

Sexual Abuse   Reference library

Yvette G. Flores

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,012 words

... 1976 and 1986 , there was a twenty-twofold increase in reported cases. In 1976 , the number of sexual abuse cases reported represented a rate of 0.86 per 10,000 children in the United States (6,000 cases). By 1986 , the number of reported cases stood at 132,000, a rate of 20.89 per 10,000 children. The reporting rates have continued to increase, but they may not accurately represent actual cases of sexual abuse, especially among Latinos and Latinas. Psychological Consequences of Sexual Abuse David Finkelhor, a sociologist, identifies four general...

Cancer

Cancer   Reference library

Amelie G. Ramirez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,388 words

...and this of course masks significant differences that exist among the various Latino population groups. Demographic Data Latinos are the largest ethnic minority group in the United States—and the fastest growing and youngest. Of the overall US population, Latinos comprise close to 20 percent, and the numbers will continue to rise dramatically. Economic Factors According to the 2010–2012 US Census Bureau American Community Survey, 25.3 percent of US Latinos live in poverty, compared to 10.8 percent of non-Hispanic whites. In general, Latinos are more likely to...

Cartoons, Political

Cartoons, Political   Reference library

Stephen Hess

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,114 words

...his name would be inextricably joined with the magazine, becoming the most important political voice in postbellum publishing. Nast ’s fame rested mainly on some fifty drawings attacking “Boss” Tweed and New York City corruption in 1871 . His centerfold cartoons—measuring 14 by 20 inches—are unsurpassed for raw power. As Nast ’s popularity began to wane, his place at center stage was captured by Joseph Keppler , son of a Viennese baker, who started a German language weekly called Puck in 1876 , adding an English edition the next year. If Nast ’s...

Nuclear Power

Nuclear Power   Reference library

J. Samuel Walker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,040 words

...to more than forty reactors, most of which had been under construction since the mid- 1970 s. No new nuclear power reactors were ordered after 1978 , and many earlier orders were canceled. In 2000 , 103 nuclear power plants were operating in the United States , providing about 20 percent of the nation’s generating capacity. By that time, the debate over nuclear power had faded as a national issue, although it continued to trigger heated arguments in many local areas where plants were located. Watts Bar 1, which came online on 7 February 1996 , was the last...

Watergate

Watergate   Reference library

Gary W. Reichard

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,350 words

... Alexander Butterfield revealed the existence of a system for tape-recording conversations in the president’s Oval Office. Both Cox and the Senate committee pressed Nixon to release tapes of several key conversations, but he refused, invoking “executive privilege.” On 20 October 1973 , Nixon ordered Attorney General Elliott Richardson to fire Cox . After Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus both refused the order and resigned, Solicitor General Robert Bork ousted Cox . This episode, dubbed the “Saturday Night ...

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