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functional brain imaging

functional brain imaging  

Functional brain imaging refers to a group of technologies developed in the last quarter of the 20th century that allow the non‐invasive measurement of human brain activity. These technologies have ...
probability learning

probability learning  

A form of discrimination learning in which the positive stimulus is rewarded on a randomized proportion of trials. In humans, this is usually achieved with variations of the light-guessing experiment ...
decile

decile  

An approximate value for the rth decile of a data set can be read from a cumulative frequency graph as the value of the variable corresponding to a cumulative relative frequency of 10r%. So the 5th ...
Gestalt therapy

Gestalt therapy  

A form of counselling or psychotherapy, unconnected with Gestalt psychology, developed in the United States during the 1960s by the German-born psychiatrist Fritz (Frederick) Perls (1893–1970), in ...
retrograde amnesia

retrograde amnesia  

Loss of memory for events or experiences before a traumatic event or incident that causes the amnesia. The memories are generally recovered gradually over time, starting with early memories, and the ...
compulsion

compulsion  

n. an obsession that takes the form of a motor act, such as repetitive washing based on a fear of contamination, as seen in obsessive–compulsive disorder.
Stanford-Binet test

Stanford-Binet test  

Used to gauge intelligence, it consists of a series of questions and problems grouped for applicability to ages up to 16 years. Some questions require verbal recognition and others recognition of ...
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator  

One of the most popular personality questionnaires, especially in commercial and industrial contexts, designed to implement the theory of function types first suggested in 1923 by the Swiss ...
prospect theory

prospect theory  

A theory, developed by the economists Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky, that seeks to explain how individuals make decisions when faced with uncertainty. It is central to the growing new area of ...
impression formation

impression formation  

The rapid creation of a unified perception or understanding of the character or personality of another person on the basis of a large number of diverse characteristics. One of the main problems in ...
skill

skill  

Expertise or accomplishment in any field; specifically, any complex, organized pattern of behaviour acquired through training and practice, including cognitive skills such as mathematics or chess, ...
drink-driving

drink-driving n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...is 80mg/dl (.08g/dl), often rather misleadingly referred to as .08 per cent blood alcohol concentration. It equates to roughly four units of alcohol (half pints of beer, glasses of wine, or measures of spirits) taken by an average 150 lb (68 kg) person in quick succession, and this is also the figure recommended by the American College of Emergency Physicians ( ACEP ) as per se evidence of driving while impaired. In some countries, including several members of the European Union, the drink-drive limit is 50mg/dl, and in Sweden it is 20mg/dl. See also ...

probability learning

probability learning n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...on a randomized proportion of trials. In humans, this is usually achieved with variations of the light-guessing experiment first described by the US psychologist Lloyd G(irton) Humphreys ( 1913–2003 ) in the Journal of Experimental Psychology in 1939 . An observer tries to predict which of two light bulbs will light up on each trial, and the bulbs are lit up randomly, 80 per cent left and 20 per cent right, for example. People typically began by distributing their guesses roughly equally between the two options, then they increase the frequency of choosing...

doubting

doubting   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
349 words

...of seriously maintaining a position of philosophical scepticism was highlighted by G. E. Moore in the 20th century, and earlier by David Hume . Hume observed that ‘Nature is always too strong for principle, and though a Pyrrhonian may throw himself and others into a momentary … confusion by his profound reasonings, the first and most trivial event in life will put to flight all his doubts’ ( Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding , 1748 ). (Published 1987) John G....

a priori

a priori   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
307 words

...cause’, were not analytic but nevertheless had the hallmarks of being a priori. The central question that his philosophy addressed was how such synthetic a priori truths were possible, whereas the strategy of his 20th-century empiricist critics was to argue that there are no a priori truths that are not analytic. (Published 1987) J. E. Tiles Frege, G. (1959). The Foundations of Arithmetic . Trans. J. L. Austin , section 3. Kant, I. (1929). The Critique of Pure Reason . Trans. N. Kemp-Smith , Preface and...

gestalt theory

gestalt theory   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,784 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The Gestalt School of psychological thought originated in Germany early in the 20th century (for a comprehensive review, see Koffka 1935 ). It is best known for its theoretical and empirical contributions to understanding the organization of perceptual experience, including the nature of perceived groups, objects, parts, properties, and the relations among them, but was extended to address issues concerning problem solving (e.g. Köhler 1925 ) and social psychology (e.g. Lewin 1951 ). Before the advent of gestalt theory, ideas about perceptual...

pattern recognition

pattern recognition   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,614 words
Illustration(s):
7

...D. G. (2001). Pattern Classification and Scene Analysis (2nd edn.). Fu, K. S. (1983). ‘ A step towards unification of syntactic and statistical pattern recognition ’. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence , 5/2. Jain, A. K. , Duin, R. P. W. , and Mao, J. (2000). ‘ Statistical pattern recognition: a review ’. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence , 22/1. Perlovsky, L. I. (1998). ‘ Conundrum of combinatorial complexity ’. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence , 20/6....

intelligence differences

intelligence differences   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,455 words

...conducted throughout the 20th century. He gathered data from the laboratories of many famous researchers, often those with disparate views about the structure of human intelligence, and submitted them to a common mode of factor analysis. He found that almost all studies found a general intelligence factor, often accounting for 40–50 per cent of the variance in test battery scores. Next, he found that there were separable, but correlated, ‘group factors’ of intelligence. These are mental capabilities less general than g , such as reasoning, verbal...

phobias

phobias   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,003 words

...(apart from blood/injury phobia) are not strongly inherited and most people do not develop them even when exposed to snakes, spiders, etc. Some phobias defy any evolutionary explanation (e.g. feather phobia). Phobias must be ‘learned’, with evolutionary genetic influences making certain phobias more likely. Extensive experiments on humans and animals since the mid-20th century have drawn on theories of classical (Pavlovian) and operant conditioning and social learning to shed light on how this learning occurs. The process in real life is complex and may...

cognitive control and consciousness

cognitive control and consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,410 words

...i.e. consciousness of maintaining the task requirements, supporting the processing of information relevant to the goals of the current task, and suppressing irrelevant information ( van Veen and Carter 2006 ). During the last quarter of the 20th century, the term control was contrasted with * automaticity (e.g. Schneider and Shiffrin 1977 ). Automatic processes were defined as being effortless, unconscious, and involuntary, and the terms unconscious and automatic were used by some interchangeably, leading to the conclusion that control should...

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