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Teller, Edward

Teller, Edward (1908–2003)   Reference library

Gregg Herken and Elspeth Knewstubb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

.... Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004. Excellent biography provides insights into Teller and his peers as well as the intersection of science and technology with policy. Mullet, Shawn . “Teller, Edward.” In Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography . Vol. 25, pp. 20–25. Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2008. Gregg Herken ; updated by Elspeth...

Lindbergh, Charles

Lindbergh, Charles (1902–1974)   Reference library

Peter L. Jakab

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...Charles ( 1902–1974 ), aviator . Lindbergh burst upon the world stage on 20– 21 May 1927 when he piloted his single-engine Ryan monoplane, The Spirit of St. Louis , solo across the Atlantic. Although this was the signature achievement of his life, Lindbergh’s impact went well beyond his epic flight. Reared on a farm in Little Falls, Minnesota, the son of a farm-bloc congressman, Lindbergh in 1920 enrolled as an engineering student at the University of Wisconsin. He dropped out after two years, learned to fly, and spent the summer of 1923 ...

Gerontology

Gerontology   Reference library

Carole Haber

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...of separating normative aging from pathological processes limited the response to these appeals. In 1922 , the American physician G. Stanley Hall added to the calls for a scientific study of old age; his work Senescence underscored the relationship between old age and degeneration. Beginning in the 1930s, gerontology started to develop roots within the American scientific community. In 1937 , E. V. Cowdry invited a group of 20 highly regarded experts to a conference at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, to examine the current state of knowledge about old age. The...

Nuclear Power

Nuclear Power   Reference library

J. Samuel Walker and Hugh Richard Slotten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...licenses to more than 40 reactors, most of which had been under construction since the mid-1970s. No new nuclear-power reactors were ordered after 1978 , and many earlier orders were canceled. In 2000 , 103 nuclear-power plants were operating in the United States, providing about 20 percent of the nation’s generating capacity. By that time, the debate over nuclear power had faded as a national issue, although it continued to trigger heated arguments in many local areas where plants were located. During the early twenty-first century, some commentators started...

Psychology

Psychology   Reference library

James H. Capshew

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

..., and David E. Leary , eds. A Century of Psychology as Science . Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 1992. (Originally published 1985.) Massive collection of historical reflections. Miner, Burt G. “The Changing Attitude of American Universities toward Psychology.” Science , 20 (1904): 299–307. Morawski, Jill G. , ed. The Rise of Experimentation in American Psychology . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1988. Historical case studies from a social constructionist perspective. Neisser, Ulric . Cognitive Psychology . Englewood...

Radio

Radio   Reference library

Christopher H. Sterling

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

... Military, Science and Technology and the ; Morse, Samuel F. B. ; Physics ; Satellites, Communications ; Science ; Space Program ; Technology ; Telegraph ; and Telephone .] Bibliography Aitken, Hugh G. J. The Continuous Wave: Technology and American Radio. 1900–1932 . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1985. Blake, George G. History of Radio Telegraphy and Telephony . London: Chapman & Hall, 1928 (reprinted by Arno Press, 1974). Douglas, Susan J. Inventing American Broadcasting, 1899–1922 . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press...

Abortion Debates and Science

Abortion Debates and Science   Reference library

Tracy A. Weitz and Carole Joffe

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...pain at 20 weeks of gestation or earlier. Following the success of the Nebraska statute, nine additional states have passed similar laws limiting abortion after or before 20 weeks. Mainstream reproductive rights organizations initially avoided filing a formal legal challenge to these laws, citing a reluctance to be baited by opponents into a fight over laws that limit only a small number of procedures that took place in the affected states ( Kliff, 2011 ). Specifically, during the early twenty-first century abortions taking place after 20 weeks of...

Science Fiction

Science Fiction   Reference library

Marc Oxoby

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...timely themes—terrorism, ecology, biotechnology, and the like—and new aesthetic concerns. [ See also Literature and Science ; Popularization of Science ; Sagan, Carl ; Science ; Social Sciences ; and Technology . ] Bibliography James, Edward . Science Fiction in the 20th Century . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994. James, Edward , and Farah Mendlesohn , eds. The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Luckhurst, Roger . Science Fiction . Cambridge, U.K.: Polity, 2005. Marc Oxoby...

Sound Technology, Recorded

Sound Technology, Recorded   Reference library

David L. Morton Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...The most successful of these new magnetic recorders was the magnetophon by the electrical firm AEG and the AGFA film subsidiary of the conglomerate I. G. Farben. The magnetophon used an oxide-coated plastic tape as its medium. Its sound quality could match the best discs, but its initial commercial advantage was the ability to make long-duration recordings (discs were only available for recordings of about 20 minutes). Tape recorders were used extensively during the Nazi period to distribute radio programs, broadcast propaganda from trucks, and make...

Hybrid Seeds

Hybrid Seeds   Reference library

Neil Dahlstrom

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...farmers still planted their corn crop with seed saved from the previous year’s harvest. They chose the best looking corn, believing that it was the strongest. That began to change in 1906 when a geneticist in the United States named G. H. Shull began experimenting with the inheritance traits of corn. Over the next 20 years processes for inbreeding and seed selection led to the introduction of a commercially viable hybrid seed in 1924 . Henry Wallace, future U.S. secretary of agriculture ( 1933–1940 ) and vice president of the United States ( 1941–1945...

Surgery

Surgery   Reference library

Thomas P. Gariepy

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...to avoid spreading puerperal fever, physicians should not attend obstetric cases unless they had washed their hands in calcium chloride and changed their clothes. This advice went unheeded, and it was more than another 20 years before sustained efforts to control infectious diseases and wound infections began. On 16 October 1846 , William T. G. Morton ( 1819–1868 ), a dentist, convinced Dr. John Collins Warren to give sulfuric ether to a patient undergoing surgery at the Massachusetts General Hospital for the removal of a tumor. The operation was quick,...

Geological Surveys

Geological Surveys   Reference library

Rex C. Buchanan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...improvements within the state, it was designed primarily to produce geologic information for engineering applications, such as building roads and bridges. Geological surveys in other states focused on minerals and mining or the relationship between soils and agriculture. By 1850 , 20 states had established geological surveys. Others added surveys in the 1850s and 1860s, particularly in the burgeoning West. Several western surveys, such as Nevada’s and California’s, focused on mining and minerals. Between 1850 and 1900 , thirteen western states created...

Mental Illness

Mental Illness   Reference library

Laura D. Hirshbein

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...the relationship between neurology and psychiatry in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, particularly through the construction of complaints that required medical intervention. Barke, Megan , Rebecca Fribush , and Peter N. Stearns . “Nervous Breakdown in 20th-Century American Culture.” Journal of Social History 33 (2000): 565–584. Braslow, Joel T. Mental Ills and Bodily Cures: Psychiatric Treatment in the First Half of the Twentieth Century . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997. Dwyer, Ellen . Homes for the Mad: Life...

Meteorology and Climatology

Meteorology and Climatology   Reference library

Kristine C. Harper

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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2015

...(Women entering the program had to have master’s degrees in hand before acceptance.) Over seven thousand men completed the program and were assigned as meteorological officers to airfields, aircraft carriers, and staff headquarters to provide operational predictions. Another 20 thousand men were trained as observers and technicians. Although not all of them remained in meteorology after the war, most of the discipline’s postwar leaders—including chaos theory creator Edward Lorenz, general atmospheric circulation theorist Norman Phillips, numerical weather...

Medicine

Medicine   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers, Eric Howard Christianson, John Harley Warner, Harry M. Marks, Harry M. Marks, and Naomi Rogers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...the American revolutionaries offered no evidence that imperial regulations had inhibited colonial medical practice. This simple fact of noninterference is important for a general understanding of health care in colonial America. Indeed, during the Colonial Era, perhaps fewer than 20 percent of all identified medical practitioners were immigrants. Of these, most came from provincial England, where the regulatory powers of London’s medical guilds, such as the Royal College of Physicians, were relatively weak. Few were college or medical-school graduates,...

Military, Science and Technology and The

Military, Science and Technology and The   Reference library

Michael Aaron Dennis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...vats with electrical stirring apparatus. By 1943 , the War Production Board authorized the construction of 19 fermentation plants at a cost of $20 million. Production proceeded with great alacrity; by December 1944 fermentation plants yielded over 290,000 million units and by June 1945 over 600,000 million units. Costs fell as well. One hundred thousand units initially cost $20; by war’s end the price had fallen to less than a dollar. Penicillin proved effective in treating a host of ailments and preventing infection, but its greatest...

Astronomy and Astrophysics

Astronomy and Astrophysics   Reference library

Trudy E. Bell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...laws of motion and gravitation to deduce the density of a comet and contended that the enormous observed speeds of meteors implied that they were solid bodies that must originate in outer space and Earth intercepted them in its orbit. David Rittenhouse of Norriton, Pennsylvania (20 miles from Philadelphia), constructed what may have been the first telescope built in the United States, as well as clocks, orreries (models of the solar system that moved through clockwork), and scientific instruments. Rittenhouse was one of at least 19 colonial observers who...

Religion And Science

Religion And Science   Reference library

Ronald L. Numbers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...L. Numbers , pp. 322–350. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986. Moran, Jeffrey P. Teaching Sex: The Shaping of Adolescence in the 20th Century . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2000. Myers-Shirk, Susan E. Helping the Good Shepherd: Pastoral Counselors in a Psychotherapeutic Culture, 1925–1975 . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009. Nelson, G. Blair . “‘Men before Adam!’: American Debates over the Unity and Antiquity of Humanity.” In When Science & Christianity Meet , edited by David C. Lindberg and...

Disease

Disease   Reference library

Gerald N. Grob

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...disease rates and lifestyle factors (e.g., diet and physical activity) and then infer conclusions about the relation between them. Thus they identify risk factors, such as high-fat diets, that presumably cause cardiovascular disease. The problem is that risk factors are associations. At best, cohort analysis and observational studies can generate hypotheses, but say nothing about causation. Indeed, the etiology of most common cancers (breast, prostate, colon) is unknown although research has shown that genetic changes (e.g., impairment of tumor suppression...

Machinery and Manufacturing

Machinery and Manufacturing   Reference library

Ross Thomson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...textile network members—mostly textile machinists but also mill owners and weavers—received 71 percent. Because networks expanded with machine usage, so did invention; annual patents grew from under one through 1805 to seventeen from 1826 through 1835 ( Thomson, 2009 , pp. 20–33). Printing. The process of machine introduction, diffusion, learning by machinists and other practitioners, and ongoing innovation would be replicated in many industries. Printing presses spread when British immigrants brought wooden presses and when Americans copied early...

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