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Erwin Barth

Erwin Barth  

(1864–1933), German landscape architect who was an outstanding personality in his profession in the first third of the 20th century.Barth's most famous work before the Second World War was ...
Flamengo, Parque do

Flamengo, Parque do  

Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, the most important urban shoreline park created in South America in the second half of the 20th century. The project was designed ...
Heinrich Friedrich Wiepking-Jürgensmann

Heinrich Friedrich Wiepking-Jürgensmann  

(1891–1973), outstanding German landscape architect in the first half of the 20th century.Before the First World War he designed gardens in various countries in Europe, such as Russia, Bohemia ...
Thomas Church

Thomas Church  

(1902–78), American landscape architect and pioneer of what later became known as the ‘California style’.He evolved an original approach to the problems of 20th-century garden design, transcending ...
public park

public park  

Garden, open space, or park open to and maintained by or for the public. From the time of C18 Enlightenment the desirability of providing public parks for the well-being of town-dwellers was ...
Hein, János

Hein, János   Reference library

Gábor Alföldy

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...the 20th century his work began to display art nouveau motifs. He worked in almost every genre of landscape architecture known to the period: the modernization of old parks (e.g. the Károlyi Park at Fehérvárcsurgó; the estate of Count Majláth at Perbenyik (today Pribeník, Slovakia), where he constructed a baroque patte d'oie motif in front of the mansion), gardens for new country houses (e.g. the Orosdy Park at Pilisszántó; the Deutsch Park at Vecsés, the estate of Baron Rothschild at Cséhtelek), villa gardens (principally in Budapest), public parks (e.g....

leadwork

leadwork   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...very large numbers by the van Nost family and John Cheere . Leadwork was sometimes painted to resemble marble or fine stone. At first leadwork was used to ornament formal gardens in the Le Nôtre style but it also appeared frequently in 18th-century landscape parks. In the late 20th century in England there was a renaissance of leadwork, casting statues, urns, and cisterns in the old style. Patrick Taylor John Davis , Antique Garden Ornament ...

cottage garden

cottage garden   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...garden . The idea of the cottage garden is essentially late Victorian in its origins but it had its greatest influence on English garden design in the 20th century. The notion of cottage life that gave rise to the idea had a heavy dose of Victorian sentimentality. Several late 19th-century artists painted views of gardens which sum up the cottage garden essence. Artists such as Helen Allingham ( 1848–1926 ), G. S. Elgood ( 1851–1943 ), Lilian Stannard ( 1877–1944 ), and several others of this time painted ripe borders, soaring hollyhocks, billowing topiary,...

Padua Botanic Garden

Padua Botanic Garden   Reference library

Penelope Hobhouse

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...are descended, thus prompting early ideas about evolution. It can still be seen in the garden today. Several exotic introductions were first grown at the botanic garden, including potato, lilac, and sunflowers. A chaste tree ( Vitex agnus-castus ), introduced in 1550 and now 20 m/60 ft high, still flourishes, as does an oriental plane planted in 1680 . Other trees such as a Ginkgo biloba and a Magnolia grandiflora date to the 18th century. Today there are sections devoted to flowers of local regions, including the macchia (Mediterranean scrub)....

Denmark

Denmark   Reference library

Annemarie Lund

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...‘the last landscape gardener’, since he was the link to the ‘architectural garden style’. Erik Erstad-Jørgensen ( 1871–1945 ) also worked both architecturally and with an eye to the landscape. At the beginning of the 20th century gardens were often laid out in small plots, characteristically in courtyards at the centre of apartment blocks. G. N. Brandt strongly influenced the development of the profession in Denmark with his designs at Ordrup Cemetery, Hellerup Coastal Park, and Mariebjerg Cemetery . Other landscape architects in this period were Peter...

Hungary

Hungary   Reference library

Gábor Alföldy

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...20th century The trend in landscape gardens continued to thrive, but the proportion of exotic plants increased substantially, leading to the creation of arboretum-like landscape gardens (e.g. Nádasdladány, Füzérradvány, Szarvas, Szombathely-Kám). It was in the last third of the 19th century that geometrically shaped pleasure grounds and carpet beds became fashionable in Hungary (e.g. János Hein , Keresztély Ilsemann ). Historicism was the defining force in the direction taken by garden construction right until the beginning of the 1900s (e.g....

Parpagliolo Shephard, Maria Teresa

Parpagliolo Shephard, Maria Teresa   Reference library

Sonja Dümpelmann

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...the 1960s document her commitment to develop a stronger public awareness of garden cultural, landscape, and environmental affairs in Italy. Sonja Dümpelmann Sonja Dümpelmann , Maria Teresa Parpagliolo Shephard (1903–1974): Ein Beitrag zur Entwicklung der Gartenkultur in Italien im 20. Jahrhundert ...

ferns, ferneries, and fernhouses

ferns, ferneries, and fernhouses   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...is a rare naturalized community looking completely at home in a suitably jungly setting. In the late 20th century tree ferns became fashionable garden plants in Britain, more often than not planted in microclimates quite unsuitable for them, requiring much laborious cosseting and never looking really happy. The fernhouse is a 19th-century development. An outstanding example is at Tatton Park (Cheshire), designed by Sir Joseph Paxton and his son-in-law G. H. Stokes in about 1859 and planted with tree ferns in naturalistic rock-edged beds underplanted with...

Jekyll, Gertrude

Jekyll, Gertrude   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...the face of England more than any, save the Creator himself and, perhaps, Capability Brown ’. Born in London, she spent most of her life in Surrey, latterly in a house designed for her by Edwin Lutyens at Munstead Wood . She designed some of the best gardens of the early 20th century, often in partnership with Lutyens. Trained as an artist, her astute sense of colour played an important role in her garden design, especially her deployment of complementary colours and her use of single colour harmonies (although she firmly recommended that a white...

conservation of gardens

conservation of gardens   Reference library

John Sales

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...may be best dealt with in general, for the place as a whole, e.g. access, circulation, interpretation, security, visitor facilities, restoration, nature conservation, staffing, training, planting policy, plant sources, rate of renewal, style of upkeep, etc. Others may be better dealt with under individual character areas. Proposals will be inevitably governed by resources and strongly influenced by any change of use of the house and estate, e.g. from private to institutional, and the garden, e.g. increased opening to visitors. The plan should explain the...

London parks and gardens

London parks and gardens   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...of 1861 , close to Lancaster Gate on the northern edge of the park, and an Italianate pumping house by Robert Banks ( 1813–72 ) and Charles Barry ( 1824–1900 ) overlooks a water parterre with four pools and fountains. In the 20th century there was much replanting of trees throughout the park, and one of the avenues, running south from G. F. Watts's bronze Physical Energy ( 1907 ), was slightly bent in order to make Sir George Gilbert Scott 's ( 1811–78 ) Albert Memorial ( 1863–72 ) into a spectacular eyecatcher. The overall area of Hyde Park and Kensington...

landscape architecture

landscape architecture   Reference library

Brent Elliott

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...architecture . The term ‘landscape architecture’ was used intermittently throughout the 19th century, but it was only in the 20th that it developed the implications of a distinct discipline. J. C. Loudon had used the term in the title of his volume of Humphry Repton 's collected works, The Landscape Gardening and Landscape Architecture of the Late Humphry Repton ( 1840 ), probably because a significant portion of Repton's writings dealt with the theme of architectural styles in the landscape. As a professional label, however, English practitioners...

Netherlands, the

Netherlands, the   Reference library

Jan Woudstra

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...treatment generated a response in the late 19th century, such as by Geertruida Carelsen (Pseudonym of A. G. de Leeuw, 1843–1938 ), the granddaughter of J. D. Zocher, and last of a well-known family of garden designers. She called for respect for plant material in garden art ( Eerbied voor het levend material in de tuinkunst , 1902 ), for use of less artificial plants in a more naturalistic manner. While this has remained an undercurrent during the 20th century with native plant gardens taking an important position in garden design, the majority of gardeners...

orchids

orchids   Reference library

Henry Oakeley and James B. Watson

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...throughout the British Isles and into Europe. John Lindley, H. G. Reichenbach, and other botanists made their reputations on the back of their descriptions of the flood of new orchid introductions, collected by the plantsmen sent out by rich amateurs and professional nurserymen to find new species to satisfy the increasing demand. The orchid nurseries of James Veitch , Jean Linden, Frederick Sander, and others importing, breeding, and growing them became major industries that continued into the 20th century. In 1946 the export of orchids from the UK was its...

Brown, Lancelot ‘Capability’

Brown, Lancelot ‘Capability’   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...and arguably the greatest, landscape gardener of his day. He was known as ‘Capability’ from his ability to realize the capabilities of a landscape. Very famous in his day, and in demand by owners of many of the noble estates, his reputation had started to decline by the early 20th century. This was chiefly as a result of the polemics of those who had rediscovered the delights of the formal, architectural garden of which Brown was regarded as the chief destroyer. His fame was reinstated by such writers as Christopher Hussey and, above all, Dorothy...

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