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Phalaecean

Phalaecean   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan and R. A. Swanson

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017

...after the Gr. poet Phalaikos ( 4th c. bce ?). It is used at times by Sophocles ( Philoctetes 136, 151) and Aristophanes ( Ecclesiazusae 942 ff.); the Alexandrian poets employed it for whole poems, e.g., Theokritos ( Epode 20), Phalaikos ( Anthologia Palatina 13.6). In Lat., it is attempted by Laevius and Varro but finds its deepest roots in Catullus, e.g., Ădēste ēndĕcăsyllăbī, quŏt ēstīs. Forty of his 113 extant poems are in hendecasyllables , ranging from love poetry to invective . These have been imitated in mod. accentual form in Ger. by Conrad...

Paralipsis

Paralipsis   Reference library

D. Veraldi and S. Cushman

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017

...Paralipsis is related to—but should not be confused with— analepsis (a flashback) and prolepsis (a flash-forward). James Phelan identifies some examples of paralipsis as paradoxical (e.g., when a narrator unselfconsciously appears to be as naïve as his or her narrated self). Alison Case suggests that Phelan’s vision of paralipsis is a convention of 20th-c. fiction rather than a perennial aesthetic. Bibliography Rhetores Graeci , ed. C. Walz , 9 vols. (1832–36) ; S. Usher , “ Occultatio in Cicero’s Speeches,” AJP 86, no. 2 (April 1965) ; H....

Priamel

Priamel   Reference library

W. H. Race and C. Doak

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017

...trace the devel. of the priamel in Sp. Golden Age poetry. Race ( 2000 ) explores the use of the priamel in the work of two 20th-c. Am. poets, Richard Wilbur and Raymond Carver ; a further study of Carver’s use of the priamel is Kleppe. Other examples can be found in Shakespeare (sonnet 91), Charles Baudelaire (“Au Lecteur”), W. B. Yeats (“An Irish Airman Foresees his Death”), and W. H. Auden (“Law Like Love”). Bibliography F. G. Bergmann , La Priamèle dans les différentes littératures anciennes et modernes (1868) ; W. Uhl , Die deutsche Priamel...

Kind

Kind   Reference library

F. L. Blumberg

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017

...for composing poetry that would bring about certain affective outcomes (e.g., satire is supposed to hold up vice to ridicule), as well as evaluative descriptions of the qualities deemed to be held in common. Major poetical kinds of the period, e.g., epic , tragedy , comedy , pastoral , and the sonnet , were often placed in a hierarchy of cultural value—with epic, tragedy, and hymn vying for supremacy. Several kinds either new (e.g., the emblem ) or revived from antiquity (e.g., the essay, the encomium ) flourished in the Ren., though some burgeoning...

Metrici and Rhythmici

Metrici and Rhythmici   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017

...in the “musical” theories of prosody of Joshua Steele (18th c.), Sidney Lanier (19th c.), Andreas Heusler and John C. Pope (20th c., for Ger. and OE), and a host of epigones, as well as in other temporal theories not strictly musical (e.g., T. S. Omond , G. R. Stewart , Derek Attridge)—for schema, see Brogan 142. Allied are those who deny that mod. verse is metrical at all, such as G. F. Nott ( 1815 ) and J. G. Southworth ( 1954 ). By contrast, the metrici include Aristotle, the Lat. grammarians (texts collected in Keil, v. 6), Bede, Philip...

Near Rhyme

Near Rhyme   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,025 words

...judging rhymes, it is important not to be misled by shifts in historical phonology, whereby rhymes that now seem only near were actually true rhymes in their day, e.g., Alexander Pope ’s “obey” / “tea.” Further, it is important that near rhyme be conceived not solely in terms of Eng. practice; for since the early 20th c., the status of near rhyme in Eng. has been problematized, while in Rus., e.g., prosodists since Zirmunskij have recognized both “approximate” and “inexact” rhyme as part of the standard definition of rhyme (see Scherr). In Celtic prosody ,...

Primitivism

Primitivism   Reference library

A. Richardson and O. Hena

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017

...Ballads , 1798 , 1800 , 1802 ). Primitivism accounts in large part for the romantic and Victorian poets’ interest in the Middle Ages, in Gr. antiquity, in “Oriental” cultures and societies, and in the Am. Indian. In the 20th c., the rise of comparative anthropology ( Franz Boas , J. G. Frazer ) and mod. psychology ( Sigmund Freud , C. G. Jung ) gave primitivism renewed force as an instinctive, primal impulse in the individual and collective unconscious. Modernist poets ( W. B. Yeats , Ezra Pound , T. S. Eliot , R. M. Rilke , W. C. Williams , D. H....

Limerick

Limerick   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan, A. Preminger, and I. D. Copestake

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017

... L. Reed , The Complete Limerick Book (1925) ; Oxford Book of Nursery Rhymes , ed. I. and P. Opie (1951) ; A. Liede , Dichtung als Spiel , vol. 2 (1963) ; G. Legman , The Limerick (1964, 1988) ; W. S. Baring-Gould , The Lure of the Limerick (1972) ; The Limerick: 1700 Examples (1970, 1974), The New Limerick (1977), both ed. G. Legman ; C. Bibby , The Art of the Limerick (1978) ; G. N. Belknap , “History of the Limerick,” The Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 75 (1981) ; Penguin Book of Limericks , ed. E. O. Parrott ...

Poetry Reading

Poetry Reading   Reference library

P. Middleton

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,459 words

...on Stage , ed. A. Ziegler et al. (1978) ; S. McCaffery , “Sound Poetry,” L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E 7 (1979) ; D. Levertov , “An Approach to Public Poetry Listenings,” Light Up the Cave (1981) ; The Poetry Reading , ed. S. Vincent and E. Zweig (1981) ; G. Economou , “Some Notes towards Finding a View of the New Oral Poetry,” Boundary 2 3 (1985) ; D. Hall , “The Poetry Reading,” American Scholar 54 (1985) ; D. Oliver , Po-etry and Narrative in Performance (1989) ; G. Stewart , Reading Voices (1990) ; F. C. Stern , “The Formal Poetry Reading,” ...

Plot

Plot   Reference library

S. S. Lanser

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,919 words

...and thus able to be translated, summarized, or transposed to another medium: thus, a single plot—say, Figaro’s marriage—can be represented as a drama, opera, verse narrative, film, or summary. Some theorists (e.g., Smith) maintain, however, that these different retellings are necessarily distinct versions and thus arguably different plots. Until the 20th c., analyses of plot were framed almost entirely within the terms given by Aristotle, for whom plot is the most essential element of dramatic art. Aristotle’s Poetics defines plot ( mythos ) as “the imitation...

Nativity Poem

Nativity Poem   Reference library

A. Vander Zee

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017

...to traditional pieties. While meditative and innovative nativity poems continued to thrive across the last two centuries (e.g., S. T. Coleridge , Christina Rossetti , W. H. Auden , and Joseph Brodsky ), romanticism opened a new relationship with the Nativity, which became an allusive presence in works addressing broader ontological concerns, as in William Wordsworth ’s “Ode: Intimations of Immortality.” In the 20th c., the genre grew increasingly ironic and reflexive. Consider T. S. Eliot ’s oblique Nativity reference in “Gerontion” to a time...

Numerology

Numerology   Reference library

A. Fowler and R. Greene

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,095 words

...poetics ): the letter total of the Heb. alphabet, e.g., used in Psalm 119, became a favorite compositional number. Indeed, handbooks of number symbolism (arithmology), such as Pietro Bongo ’s Numerorum mysteria ( 1591 ), most often based a number’s symbolisms on the contexts of its biblical occurrences. But it is important to recognize that numerology could nevertheless be mimetic, since creation itself was thought to reveal patterns of number symbolism. A much-quoted authority was Wisdom of Solomon 11:20: “Thou hast ordered all things by measure, number,...

Ploce

Ploce   Reference library

T.V.F. Brogan and M. Martin

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017

... Lord Tennyson ’s poem “Break! Break! Break!” and many of G. M. Hopkins ’s poems, e.g., “The Leaden Echo and the Golden Echo,” which includes both “to despair, to despair, / Despair, despair, despair, despair” and “We follow, now we follow.—Yonder, yes yonder, yonder, yonder, / Yonder.” Twentieth-c. Am. poet Stephen Crane employs both ploce and epizeuxis in his poem “In the Desert.” Both poetic figures are widespread in 20th- and 21st-c. poetry. Epizeuxis is common in hip-hop lyrics (e.g., Flo Rida ’s “Low”). Johannes Susenbrotus writes in Epitome...

Narrative Poetry

Narrative Poetry   Reference library

C. R. Kinney

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
3,751 words

...Bildungsroman. George Meredith ’s Modern Love ( 1862 ) co-opts the lyric sequence for quasi-novelistic purposes. Moving into the 20th c., one finds a sparser, starker version of romantic blank-verse narrative in the snapshot rural narratives (e.g., “The Death of the Hired Man,” “Home Burial”) of Robert Frost ’s North of Boston collection ( 1914 ). With the particular valorization of the lyric (and the lyric sequence) in the 20th c., poetic storytelling tends to fall out of favor and becomes associated with middlebrow “parlor poetry” (like some of the...

Organicism

Organicism   Reference library

H. Janiszewska

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... PMLA 66 (1951); Abrams; C. Brooks , “Implications of an Organic Theory of Poetry,” Literature and Belief , ed. M. H. Abrams (1958) ; C. Lord , “Organic Unity Reconsidered,” JAAC 22 (1964) ; G.N.G. Orsini , “The Organic Concepts in Aesthetics,” CL 21 (1969) ; Organic Form: The Life of an Idea , ed. G. S. Rousseau (1972) ; G.N.G. Orsini , “Organicism,” Organic Unity in Ancient and Later Poetics (1975) ; E. Rothstein , “‘Organicism,’ Rupturalism, and Ism-ism,” MP 85 (1988) ; J. Neubauer , “Organicist Poetics as Romantic Heritage?”...

Parallelism

Parallelism   Reference library

M. P. O’Connor and E. L. Greenstein

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,213 words

...of the word pair “meadow-waters” (cf. Joel 1:20) between the two members of the parallelism, and on top of that a phonetic echo of the verb from line to line. In Chinese verse and rhet., as was said, it is typical to formulate full lines in complete syntactic parallelism, e.g., “In the vast desert a solitary column of smoke rises straight, / Over the long river the setting sun looms round” (Wang Wei; quoted in Plaks 536). In Eng. Ren. poetry, by contrast, it is common to pattern phrases in sequence in parallelism, e.g., “Light of my life, and life of my desire”;...

Pastiche

Pastiche   Reference library

C. Bowen

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017

...of literary works, the word pastiche dates back centuries; as an evaluative term, its usage gradually acquired a hint of negative or dismissive connotation. The word implies a lack of originality or coherence, an imitative jumble. It was only in the latter half of the 20th c.—and most esp. in the context of theories of postmod. narrative—that pastiche acquired its current critical purchase. While the term is almost unthinkable today outside the umbrella of postmodernism , its etymological root is instructive. Pastiche comes from pasticcio ,...

Philippines, Poetry of the

Philippines, Poetry of the   Reference library

I. R. Cruz and G. H. Abad

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,636 words

...strong influence on subsequent poets that the modernist movement in the 20th c. was characterized as a battle between his disciples and his detractors ( see modernism ). Ranged among his disciples were political poets such as Andres Bonifacio ( 1863–97 ), Marcelo H. Del Pilar ( 1850–95 ), and Amado V. Hernandez ( 1903–70 ); and romantic poets such as José Corazon de Jesus ( 1896–1932 ). Among those who consciously moved away from his trad. were experimental poets such as Alejandro G. Abadilla ( 1906–69 ) and Rolando S. Tinio ( 1937–97 ). Working with...

Knittelvers

Knittelvers   Reference library

D. H. Chisholm and K. Bowers

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2017

...was revived by J. C. Gottsched and used later by J. W. Goethe ( Hanswursts Hochzeit, Jahrmarktsfest zu Plundersweilern , and parts of Urfaust, Faust , and the West-östlicher Divan ), Friedrich Schiller ( Wallensteins Lager ), and other poets ( J. G. Herder , G. A. Bürger , J.M.R. Lenz ), e.g.: Habe nun, ach, die Philosophie, Medizin und Juristerei, Und leider auch die Theologie Durchaus studiert mit heißer Müh. Da steh ich nun, ich armer Tor, Und bin so klug, als wie zuvor. (Goethe, Urfaust ) In general, the metrical form of 19th-c...

Obscurity

Obscurity   Reference library

P. McCallum

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,595 words

...and The Occult Philosophy in the Elizabethan Age (1979) ; D. Brookes-Davis , The Mercurian Monarch (1983) ; The L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E Book , ed. B. Andrews and C. Bernstein (1984)—esp. R. Silliman , “If by ‘Writing’ We Mean Literature” ; M. Riffaterre , “Hermeneutic Models,” PoT 4 (1983) ; A. Patterson , Censorship and Interpretation (1984) ; In the American Tree , ed. R. Silliman (1986)—anthol. of Language poetry ; G. Hartley , Textual Politics and the Language Poets (1989) ; M. Perloff , Radical Artifice: Writing Poetry in the Age of...

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