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sea stories

sea stories   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
105 words

...Crusoe ( 1719 ) and Gulliver’s Travels ( 1726 ). Captain Marryat was the first British 19th-cent. adventure story writer to make a speciality of sea tales. His contemporaries E. G. G. Howard and Michael Scott produced sea stories which were read by young people, and R. H. Dana’s Two Years Before the Mast ( 1840 ) was very popular in America. Among 20th-cent. boys’ writers about the sea are Norman Duncan and Richard Armstrong...

Our Island Story

Our Island Story (c.1910)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
82 words

...Marshall , illustrated by A. S. Forrest. A collection of stories from history, told to two Australian children. The book includes ‘stories which wise people say are only fairy-tales and not history’, e.g. legends of King Arthur. It ends with the Boer War and the death of Queen Victoria. It was one of the most popular history books during the first half of the 20th...

Strang, Herbert,

Strang, Herbert,   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
162 words

...Herbert, pseudonym of George Herbert Ely ( 1866–1958 ) and James L'Estrange ( 1867–1947 ), British collaborators who wrote and edited boys' adventure stories and historical fiction in the first half of the 20th century . In the spirit of G. A. Henty , Herbert Strang books celebrate imperial values (even as the empire was shrinking) and manly English heroes, with titles like Barclay of the Guides: A Story of the Indian Mutiny ( 1909 ), Frank Forrester: A Story of the Dardanelles ( 1915 ), and The Heir of a Hundred Kings ( 1930 ). Ely and...

Cleaver, Hilton

Cleaver, Hilton   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
156 words

...Hilton ( 1891–1961 ), British author and journalist, born in London and educated at St. Paul's School. An author of plays, adult novels, and nonfiction, Hilton Cleaver was to become one of the most popular boys’ school writers of the 20th century . Inspired by the early school stories of P. G. Wodehouse , he began his career by writing fiction for the Captain , a magazine for boys. His later serials for the Captain , Chum , and Boy's Own Paper were subsequently published as novels. A leading sports writer for the London Evening Standard , he was...

Daugherty, James

Daugherty, James   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
167 words

...importance are his bold, animated illustrations that extend this narrative's content and heighten both the tragic and gratifying aspects of Boone ’s life story. See also Biography ; Boone, Daniel ; and Illustrations . Linda G. Benson Kent, Norman . “James Daugherty, Buckskin Illustrator.” American Artist 9 (March 1945): 16–20...

movable picture books

movable picture books   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
346 words

...Toy Books’, e.g. Cinderella with five set scenes and nine trick changes ( c. 1880 ). Ward Lock issued a number of books with movable pictures, and two German companies, H. Grevel & Co. (representing Braun and Schneider of Munich) and Ernest Nister & Son, published movables in England; Grevel specialized in the books devised and drawn by Lothar Meggendorfer (e.g. Comic Actors , 1891 ), and Nister in ‘dissolving views’, e.g. The Picture Show, a novel picture book for children ( 1895 ). Movables continued to be produced during the 20th cent., an...

Stratemeyer, Edward

Stratemeyer, Edward   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
235 words

...outlines. He published forty-two new series between 1904 and 1915 , and twenty-six more between 1919 and 1930 . They included career, travel, school, “tot,” and mystery stories, as well as historical and romantic novels. About 20 per cent of the series were intended for girls. Each series appeared under one pen name (e.g., Franklin W. Dixon , Carolyn Keene , Laura Lee Hope ) that was shared by a number of different ghostwriters. Leslie MacFarlane , for example wrote some of the Hardy Boys titles, and Mildred Wirt Benson wrote fifty books in various...

science fiction

science fiction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
461 words

...which began publication in the 1890s, a typical subject in their pages being flying machines with extraordinary powers. ‘Frank Reade’, who featured in the Aldine ‘Invention, Travel and Adventure Library’ in the early 20th cent., was an inventor whose greatest creation was the Steam Man, a giant steam-powered robot. Meanwhile H. G. Wells , whose first scientific romance The Time Machine was published in 1895 , exerted an influence that could be seen in many stories in boys’ magazines in the early 1900s; these described the invasion of England at some...

Limericks

Limericks   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
330 words

...The original limericks were the author's creative addition to the original song, and stories of the adventures of common Irish folk. Most verses were impromptu, and authors could make them as ridiculous or humorous as they wished. The limerick gained popularity during the 19th and 20th centuries . A humorous combination of writing and illustration, The Book of Nonsense published by Edward Lear in 1846 took the message of the limerick to new heights. Lear's Book of Nonsense helped push the appeal and popularity of illustrated books for children. By...

MARRYAT, Captain Frederick

MARRYAT, Captain Frederick (1792–1848)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
399 words

...Allan Poe called it ‘mediocre’, but it was much admired by Dickens . In the 20th cent. Virginia Woolf has judged him ‘a sound craftsman, not marvellously but sufficiently endowed at his work’. In the history of children’s literature he is notable as the first writer of adventure stories to draw chiefly upon real personal experiences, although his debt to Robinson Crusoe and The Swiss Family Robinson is considerable. His imitators during his own lifetime include E. G. G. Howard and Michael Scott...

Storytelling in the United Kingdom and the United States

Storytelling in the United Kingdom and the United States   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
597 words

...I. They trained thousands, influencing storytelling repertoires and styles. Numerous books on storytelling and collections of ready-to-tell tales were published at this time. Many recommended tales provided sources for picture books and animation later in the 20th century . Trends begun earlier in the 20th century continued with the efforts of librarian storytellers such as Ruth Sawyer , Eileen Colwell , Alice Kane , Augusta Baker , Ellin Greene , Janet Hill , Grace Hallworth , and Liz Weir . Between them they established some of the first children's...

Guillot, René

Guillot, René   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
306 words

...young. Guillot's stories are often set in Africa (e.g., Sirga, Queen of the African Bush , 1953 , and The Elephants of Sargabal , 1956 ). Entire generations of readers have been enthralled by descriptions of the continent he knew so well. He takes particular care with the narrative structure, creating an effective atmosphere of suspense, and his characters are endearing and credible. His colorful style and his skill in conjuring a setting or creating a compelling narrative place him among the greatest 20th-century French writers for children. His work has...

Seven Champions of Christendom, The

Seven Champions of Christendom, The   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
306 words

...in The Tatler in 1709 that his eight- year-old godson “Loved Saint George for being the champion of England.” By the 19th century , adult readers had grown out of such stories, but there were adaptations for children until the early 20th century , including a highly moral version of 1861 by the boys’ writer W. H. G. Kingston . See also Bible in Children's Literature, The ; Chapbooks ; and biographies of figures mentioned in this article. Gillian...

annual

annual   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
343 words

...In some cases, however, an annual outlived its parent magazine, by 30 years in the case of Peter Parley’s . An unusual case of an annual begetting a magazine, rather than the other way round, was Basil Blackwell’s Joy Street , in the 1920s. Annuals in the first half of the 20th cent., in Britain and America, were generally associated with comic or cartoon characters; in more recent years, while they remain consistently popular, they have evolved from this strong association and are now spawned by a variety of popular interests (television programmes,...

games-rhymes

games-rhymes   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
386 words

... Games and Songs of American Children ( 1883 , augmented 1903 ). Newell’s book included the tunes of many games-rhymes. He believed, as did Lady Gomme, that the games were a dying custom, and that the rhymes would disappear. Collectors of the 20th cent. took a very different view. Surveys such as Paul G. Brewster’s American Nonsinging Games ( 1953 ) and, most notably, Iona and Peter Opie ’s Children’s Games in Street and Playground ( 1969 ) recognize that as old games die, new ones develop. ‘There is no town or city known to us’, write the...

Juvenile Literature As It Is

Juvenile Literature As It Is (1888)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
320 words

...The favourite authors of 790 boys were, in descending order, Charles Dickens (223), W. H. G. Kingston (179), Walter Scott (128), Jules Verne (114), Captain Marryat (102), R. M. Ballantyne (67), Harrison Ainsworth (61), Shakespeare (44), and Mayne Reid (33). Lewis Carroll did not feature. The same boys’ favourite books were (from a much longer list) Robinson Crusoe (43), The Swiss Family Robinson (24), The Pickwick Papers (22), Ivanhoe (20), The Boy’s Own Annual (17), the Bible (15), and Tom Brown’s Schooldays (15), as well as...

Gruelle, Johnny

Gruelle, Johnny   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
488 words
Illustration(s):
1

...also drew comic strips, and from about 1908 concentrated on comics for children. One of his most popular comic strip characters was Mr. Twee Deedle . Johnny Gruelle . Illustration from Raggedy Ann's Sunny Songs by Gruelle and Will Wooden (New York: Miller Music, c. 1930), p. 20. Reproduced courtesy of the Cotsen Children's Library, Princeton University Library Various versions of the origin of Raggedy Ann and Andy have circulated, but a family diary supports the story that the inspiration for Raggedy was an old rag doll that Gruelle's daughter, ...

science

science   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
517 words

...1870 ). Arabella Buckley was another British author of this period who tried to make science palatable. The Children’s Encyclopaedia ( 1908 onwards), edited by Arthur Mee , included a good deal of scientific information, but there was little in the way of imaginative British 20th-cent. scientific writing for children until 1928 , when Amabel Williams-Ellis produced How You Began: a child’s introduction to biology ; though highly imaginative in its treatment of the development of the human fetus, this book managed to cover the subject without mentioning...

adventure stories

adventure stories   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,199 words

...aimed at working-class readers, about such improbable heroes as Wilson the Wonder Athlete . During the late 19th and early 20th cents., boys’ adventure papers in Britain also made much use of the type of adventure story pioneered by R. L. Stevenson in Treasure Island ( 1883 ) and by Rider Haggard in King Solomon’s Mines ( 1885 ), and of the detective story and the Jules Verne style of science fiction tale. For much of the 20th cent. the tendency was for the ‘serious’ adventure story for children to draw less on the Ballantyne–Henty tradition than...

Penny Dreadful

Penny Dreadful   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,435 words

... 19th century , the term itself was used more widely for the later works because they reached a large juvenile audience and simultaneously came under critical scrutiny for their alleged evil influence on developing youth. It is the later period, from the 1850s through the early 20th century , when the penny dreadful had the most influence on children's literature. Penny dreadfuls as a publishing phenomenon were made possible by the conjunction of specific social and economic conditions. First, increased levels of literacy among the general population became...

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