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The Twentieth Century

The Twentieth Century   Quick reference

Brian M. Short

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,083 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...20th‐century urban areas is now being explored. Post‐ 1929 social welfare and social services material is perhaps under‐utilized, but the limitations imposed by the Data Protection Act must be recognized. The fledgling 20th‐century planning system has left various records, but, in the absence of binding central legislation before 1947 , these were sporadically distributed across different localities. Strategic planning before 1947 produced various ad hoc schemes of land use zoning and permitted uses. Development Plans were prepared after 1947 (e.g....

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,991 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Yet, for all its continuities, the British book in the 20 th and early 21 st centuries has proved itself distinctive: thoroughly engaged with deep changes in society, heavily market-oriented, and occasionally iconic both in form and in content. Bibliography D. Athill , Stet (2000) E. de Bellaigue , British Book Publishing as a Business since the 1960s (2004) C. Bloom , Bestsellers (2002) P. Buitenhuis , The Great War of Words (1987) J. Carey , The Intellectuals and the Masses (1992) G. Clark and A. Phillips , Inside Book Publishing , 4e...

Surnames

Surnames   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,649 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...refer to as a ‘non‐paternity event’—illegitimacy or change of name—and, in cases of more than one origin of a surname, it can separate the various families. The main area of contention is where 20–50 per cent of a random sample have a common ancestor and it is not clear whether the rest have ancestors who were illegitimate or who changed their name (e.g. when a widowed mother remarried) or whether the rest are descended from separate bearers of the same name. The question of single or plural origins for distinctive surnames often remains unanswered. DNA...

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,145 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...stimulated the rapid expansion of publishing across the country. One particularly influential house was that of *Bonnier , which published Strindberg’s works and grew during the 20 th century into a major media group. Technical, economic, and social developments made books widely affordable. Entertaining literature was consumed in large quantities, and new foreign novels by e.g. August Lafontaine , Scott , Dickens , and Dumas were translated. Some were *serialized in newspapers, others launched in cheap editions, often through subscription sales, by...

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,936 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...20 th century, book production in Switzerland increased from about 1,000 titles to almost 14,000 per year. Just over four-fifths of the books published at the end of the 20 th century appeared in one of the national languages: 59 per cent in German, 18 per cent in French, 3 per cent in Italian, and 0.6 per cent in Rhaeto-Romanic, much of the rest being published in English. Yet these account for only about 30 per cent of the books on sale in Switzerland, with roughly 70 per cent being of foreign origins. Among Swiss publishing houses established in the 20...

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,963 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...where the documents were demonstrably corrupt (i.e. resistant to interpretation by appeal to contextual knowledge) anticipates key features of the *Greg – *Bowers position in 20 th -century textual theory. The most important contribution to classical and biblical editing was the extended formulation of stemmatics by *Lachmann ( 1793–1853 ), and his forerunners F. A. Wolf , K. G. Zumpt , and F. W. Ritschl . For textual traditions where the original MSS are lost, even sophisticated practitioners lacked a clear and overriding principle for understanding...

15 Children’s Books

15 Children’s Books   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,997 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of printing. By modern standards, few concessions were made to children as readers. Production was dominated by didactic works, including Latin *grammars (by Donatus and others), courtesy literature or *conduct books (e.g. Robert Grosseteste ’s Puer ad Mensam ), moral instruction (e.g. Disticha Catonis ), or *anthologies (e.g. Geoffroy de la Tour Landry’s Book of the Knight of the Tower , which *Caxton printed in 1484 ). In time, illustrated abridgements and adaptations of adult texts intended to teach children began to appear. Notable examples...

30 The History of the Book in Austria

30 The History of the Book in Austria   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,528 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...in such monasteries as Salzburg (then belonging to Bavaria) and *Kremsmünster , both 8 th -century foundations, and later at Admont, St Florian, and elsewhere. In 1500 , the population of the area corresponding to present-day Austria was about 1.5 million. Vienna had c .20,000 inhabitants, Schwaz 15,000, Salzburg 8,000, Graz 7,000, Steyr 6,000, and Innsbruck 5,000. At that date, Vienna’s university (founded 1365 ), was a centre of humanist scholarship. The first printer in the city was Stephan Koblinger , who arrived from Vicenza in 1482 and...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,157 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...publishers (e.g. Editora Escolar, Maputo, 1993 ) to emerge. Elsewhere in the Southern African Development Community, printing was introduced to Île de France (Mauritius) by the French in 1767 , and subsequently reached Madagascar (where the LMS also established a press, in 1826 ). Madagascar is its own special case, unusual among former French colonies in having been a unified kingdom with a single written language (Malagasy, related to Malay) before colonization. It also possessed a history of writing in Arabic script. Throughout the early 20 th century,...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,040 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...a phenomenon that had important commercial and cultural implications. Fundamental structural changes paved the way for the future direction of the publishing industry and became integral to 20 th -century developments in the horizontal integration of the industry, by which smaller firms merged to form larger publishing houses that commanded a greater market share. 9 The 20 th century The growth in book production in the 50 years before World War I was higher than the growth in the reading public—a ‘catching-up’ after the setbacks of the mid- 1860s . The...

Historic Churches

Historic Churches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,420 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...estate churches were invariably Gothic. During the second half of the 20th century a wide range of modern styles were used. Towers and spires vary in style according to the period of their construction and the locality in which they were reared. In 9th‐century Italy the casting of bells heavier than hitherto necessitated the construction of separate belfry towers either of timber or of stone. By the 10th century the fashion had spread to England. In some surviving Anglo‐Saxon churches, e.g. Monkwearmouth (County Durham) and Deerhurst (Gloucestershire), earlier...

Population Levels and Trends

Population Levels and Trends   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,124 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...at this time was the study of geographical mobility , which was advanced by the publication of E. G. Ravenstein , ‘The Laws of Migration’, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society , 48 ( 1885 ), which categorized various stages of migration and emphasized that most people travelled relatively short distances. Ravenstein's model has proved of lasting worth. Major advances in the study of historical demography were made in the second half of the 20th century. An early attempt at an overall view of the population of the Middle Ages was J. C. Russell , ...

33 The History of the Book in Poland

33 The History of the Book in Poland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,081 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...) ran a printing office for the Polish Socialist Party in London. 7 The 20 th century When Poland regained independence in 1918 , printing, publishing, and cultural life were reinvigorated, but many obstacles remained for the development of reading and book culture. Literacy levels were low ( c .33 per cent in 1921 ) and book prices were high. There were approximately 500 publishers in Poland in 1935 ; overall production in terms of titles had nearly trebled from c .3,000 (early 20 th century) to c .8,700 ( 1938 ). Gebethner & Wolff remained the giants...

Scottish Local and Family History

Scottish Local and Family History   Quick reference

David moody

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,622 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...been suggested that economic history is the key to understanding modern Scotland. Work in the economic field began early in the 20th century (already at this time there was a lectureship in economic history at Edinburgh University). James MacKinnon , Henry Hamilton , and Isabel F. Grant (also the author of marvellous books on Highland folk ways) contributed monographs. Post‐war leadership has come as much from Glasgow, through S. G. Checkland , Edgar Lythe , John Butt , R. H. Campbell , and Anthony Slaven , with Scotland's industrial economy finally...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

... W. A. Kelly , eds., The German Book, 1450–1750 (1995) M. Giesecke , Der Buchdruck in der frühen Neuzeit (1991) [ Gutenberg-Gesellschaft and Gutenberg-Museum ,] Blockbücher des Mittelalters (1991) J. Ing , Johann Gutenberg and his Bible (1987) G. Jäger , Geschichte des deutschen Buchhandels im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert , pts. 1 and 2, Das Kaiserreich 1871–1918 (2001–3) F. Kapp and J. Goldfriedrich , Geschichte des deutschen Buchhandels (4 vols, 1886–1913; repr. 1970) A. Kapr , Johann Gutenberg , tr. D. Martin (1996) H.-J. Künast , ‘Getruckt zu...

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans   Reference library

Aleksandra B. Vraneš

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,947 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...ethnically, and linguistically. The book culture of the area is characterized by the coexistence in its history of different ethnic groups (e.g. Celts, Illyrians, Romans, Avars, Vlachs, Germans, Slavs, and Turks), languages (e.g. Latin, Greek, Albanian, various Slavonic and Turkic languages), cultures, religions (e.g. paganism, Catholicism, Orthodox Christianity, and Islam), and political systems (e.g. of the Roman, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires, and the Soviet bloc). 2 South Slavonic MSS and the beginning of printing The Balkans could be...

Welsh Local and Family History

Welsh Local and Family History   Quick reference

D. Huw Owen

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,425 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...repositories as well as in private collections, was presented in G. T. Clark's Cartae et Alia Munimenta quae ad Dominium de Glamorgan Pertinent (6 vols, 2nd edn, 1910 ). J. H. Matthews's Records of the County Borough of Cardiff ( 1888–1911 ) also appeared in six volumes. Large‐scale, multi‐volume histories of the Welsh dioceses , and of the Nonconformist denominations , together with biographies of the leaders, were published in the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century. In spite of their bulk, and in some cases intimidating...

11 The Technologies of Print

11 The Technologies of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,192 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
8

...this adds to the cost and demands accuracy in placing the paper, so that the colours print over each other in *register . During the 19 th century, multiple colours were increasingly used to increase the effectiveness of new kinds of printing: e.g. posters and packaging, and books for children ( see 15 ). In the 20 th century, that market would also include large-circulation periodicals. At first, colours were mixed by specialist printers to make tints that worked in harmonious combinations. With the development of colour theory at the end of the 19 th ...

3 The Ancient Book

3 The Ancient Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...H. Blanck , Das Buch in der Antike (1992) W. G. Boltz , The Origin and Early Development of the Chinese Writing System (1994) E. H. Boone et al ., eds., Writing Without Words (1994) L. Casson , Libraries in the Ancient World (2001) G. Cavallo , Libri, scribi, scritture a Ercolano (1983) — ‘Between Volumen and Codex: Reading in the Roman World’, in A History of Reading in the West , ed. G. Cavallo et al ., tr. L. G. Cochrane (1999; French original, 1995) E. Chiera , They Wrote on Clay , ed. G. C. Cameron , 2e (1969) J. Černŷ , Paper and...

17 Bookbinding

17 Bookbinding   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,252 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
9

..., whose beautifully crafted bindings, produced to his own designs, inspired a revival of interest in handcrafted bookbinding. A tradition of fine bookbinding flourished in many countries during the 20 th century; in England, A 20 th -century binding by Edgar *Mansfield , an influential figure in the development of the *Designer Bookbinder movement in the later 20 th century: *blind-tooling on yellow *goatskin . The upper cover of H. E. Bates’s Through the Woods (London, 1936). © The British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. (C.128.f.10) the...

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