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middle range theory

middle range theory  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[De]A term developed in sociology by Robert K. Merton in the late 1940s as a way of connecting high‐level social theory with empirically observable patterns. Similarly, in archaeology, it has become ...
Speckhau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Speckhau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Si]Mortuary complex comprising about 35 burial mounds grouped around the Hohmichele, the second largest early Iron Age round barrow in Europe, with a diameter of about 80 m and a preserved height of ...
wet sieving

wet sieving  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Te]Process of recovering finds and ecofacts from excavated archaeological deposits by passing them through one or more screens or sieves either suspended in water or washed through with running ...
fluting

fluting  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[De]Pattern of ornamentation often found on pottery which comprises a series of broad parallel corrugations, either horizontal, diagonal, or vertical, which have a wave‐shaped cross‐section.
Vere Gordon Childe

Vere Gordon Childe  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
(1892–1957)Born in Australia, Childe became professor successively in the Universities of Edinburgh and London, and was a leading figure in mid-20th-century archaeology. Known for his Marxist ...
Mildenhall Treasure

Mildenhall Treasure  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Ge]A massive hoard of late Roman silverware found in a field at West Row, near Mildenhall, Suffolk, England, in ad 1942. The hoard contains 34 pieces, including a large dish depicting the head of ...
metope

metope  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Co]The plain panel alternating with the decorated cover‐plate for the roof beam‐ends (the triglyphs) in the Doric frieze. In classical times a sculptured relief decorated the plain space, the series ...
Samian ware

Samian ware  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Ar]Fine pottery, characterized by its glossy red appearance, mass‐produced as the standard table ware throughout the Roman world from the late 1st century bc to the 3rd century ad; also known as ...
amphora

amphora  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Ar]A large two‐handled ceramic jar with narrow neck and pointed or rounded base. Used for the storage and transportation of liquid commodities such as wine, olive oil, and fish sauce around the ...
beaker

beaker  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Archaeology
[Ar]1 Generally, a ceramic or metal drinking vessel of suitable size and shape to hold in the hands. The precise type is normally specified by reference to form or fabric, thus butt beaker, ...
Cultural Creativity

Cultural Creativity   Reference library

Ian Alden Russell

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
689 words

...(e.g., Stanford Metamedia’s Presence Project, 2005–2009). As archaeology is often a technologically led process of abstraction and projection, translation of the discipline’s strategies of visualization into virtual and digital realms has been in active development for well over a decade. As such, archaeologists as well as anthropologists have over this last decade undertaken serious engagements with the traces, residues, and phenomena of digital life worlds and computer game industries. Many have seized participatory opportunities enabled through Web 2.0...

Monte Albán

Monte Albán   Reference library

Richard E. Blanton

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
475 words

...the Zapotec and Mixtec Civilizations , 1983. Licón, Ernesto González . “Ritual and Social Stratification at Monte Albán, Oaxaca: Strategies from a Household Perspective.” In Domestic Life in Prehispanic Capitals , edited by Linda R. Manzanilla and Claude Chapdelaine , pp. 7–20, 2009. Marcus, Joyce . Mesoamerican Writing Systems: Propaganda, Myth, and History in Four Ancient Civilizations , 1992. Richard E....

Terra Amata

Terra Amata   Reference library

Paul G. Bahn

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
538 words

...were always oval, between 23 feet (7 m) and 49 feet (15 m) in length and 4 to 20 feet (1 to 6 m) wide. One of the oldest was surrounded by a line of large blocks, 12 inches (30 cm) in diameter, sometimes piled on each other, and enclosing a thick layer of organic material and ash. Some of the hut floors appeared to bear the imprint of skin coverings. Traces of small hearths were found at the center of each hut: some were dug 6 inches (15 cm) into the sand dune and were 12 to 20 inches (30 to 50 cm) across. Others were paved with pebbles. The fact that many...

Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction

Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction   Reference library

Nick Branch

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,780 words

...Reconstruction The fields of geoarchaeology and bioarchaeology involve the analysis of fossil (and sub-fossil) soils and sediments, and plant and animal remains, from both archaeological (e.g., pits, ditches, hearths, wells, cesspits, human bodies) and geological archives (e.g., lakes, peat bogs, caves, rock shelters). Therefore, by definition they are core areas for the study of the environment and its relationship with people through time . To achieve this goal requires the use of a range of analytical methods and the application of...

Lascaux

Lascaux   Reference library

Paul G. Bahn

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
991 words

...first space is the great Hall of the Bulls, about 66 feet (20 m) across and 16 feet (5 m) high, the walls of which are covered in painted figures. The main frieze is dominated by a series of four enormous black auroch bulls, over 16 feet (5 m) in length (and all probably by the same artist), as well as smaller horses and tiny deer, and it begins at the left with an enigmatic “imaginary” animal, with two straight horns, known oddly as the Unicorn. The hall is prolonged by the Axial Gallery, 66 feet (20 m) in length and 5 feet (1.5 m) wide at the bottom, but 11...

Tautavel

Tautavel   Reference library

Paul G. Bahn

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
420 words

...been excavating the cave since 1964. The deposits are over 35 feet (10 m) thick, comprising an alternation of sands and sandy clays, with a thick layer of stalagmite at the top. Over twenty ancient living floors have been uncovered, separated from each other by 2 to 8 inches (5–20 cm) of sterile sand, and filled with stone and bone debris, but with no trace of fire. The fauna consists primarily of horse, but also includes bison, aurochs, musk ox, mouflon, chamois, deer, carnivores, rhinoceros, elephant, rabbit, and birds. This faunal assemblage points to the...

Vijayanagara

Vijayanagara   Reference library

Carla M. Sinopoli

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
445 words

...city was founded at the site of a small temple center, dated to the eleventh century AD. From the founding of the empire around AD 1350, Vijayanagara rapidly grew to a population of some quarter- to a half-million inhabitants. The core of the capital extended over 7.7 square miles (20 sq km), and the fortified suburban zone, containing dispersed settlements, craft production locales, and a diverse range of agricultural fields and irrigation works, was more than 116 square miles (300 sq km) in area. The city was abandoned in 1565 and has not been extensively reoccupied...

Digital Recording

Digital Recording   Reference library

Mario Santana-Quintero

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,874 words

...“real” background, but offer only simple data linkage and modifying tools. These systems are currently in full development (e.g., http://googleearth.com , or http://virtualearth.com ). • Hybrid, shared, Web 2.0 systems with relational data structures, XML, and other standards are perhaps the most promising system: highly customizable, adaptable, and easy to share. However, such systems are still an emerging technology (see, e.g., https://lirias.kuleuven.be/bitstream/123456789/247488/1/2004-10-vsmm_paper_msq_bw2.pdf , and the UNESCO World Heritage...

Venus Figurines

Venus Figurines   Reference library

Marcia-Anne Dobres

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,566 words

...images of the female body, but these are not representative of the class as a whole. There are also clear portrayals of the male body (e.g., from Brassempouy, Laussel, and Dolní Vĕstonice), as well as numerous generalized anthropomorphs (e.g., examples from Sireuil, Tursac, Grimaldi, Dolní Vĕstonice, and Malt’a). Many specimens appear to be deliberately androgynous, and those with only faces cannot be sexed at all (e.g., specimens from Brassempouy, Mas d’Azil, Bédeilhac, and Dolní Vĕstonice). Some may be no more than incomplete rough-outs (or ébauches ),...

Databases

Databases   Reference library

Angela M. Labrador

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,076 words

...vary across archaeological databases, the need to communicate to other software and researchers the metadata standards used locally has grown. Rather than adopting a single authority (e.g., Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus), archaeologists have turned to resources that help to standardize the data models used (e.g., CIDOC CRM) and accessibly document their metadata schema (e.g., Extensible Markup Language). Archaeological databases are implemented at a number of scales, from single spreadsheets used by an individual researcher, to national repositories that serve...

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