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G For George

Was an Avro Lancaster Mark I bomber, serial number W4783, delivered to No. 460 Squadron, RAAF, in October 1942. By the time it was withdrawn from operational service in April ...

‘G For George’

‘G For George’   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...G For George’ was an Avro Lancaster Mark I bomber, serial number W4783, delivered to No. 460 Squadron, RAAF, in October 1942 . By the time it was withdrawn from operational service in April 1944 it had flown 90 operations against targets in Germany, Italy and France, and was the last of its type to be retired. It was flown to Australia to promote the Third Victory Loan, arriving in Brisbane on 8 November 1944 . It was declared surplus in July 1945 and 10 years later was installed in the Australian War Memorial's Aeroplane Hall. In 1977 its full wartime...

G For George

G For George  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Was an Avro Lancaster Mark I bomber, serial number W4783, delivered to No. 460 Squadron, RAAF, in October 1942. By the time it was withdrawn from operational service in April ...
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An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to rework the promotional gallery formula suggest the limited opportunities for artists to exhibit independently and promote their work. In 1790 he had been engaged by the publisher Joseph *Johnson to paint thirty pictures to illustrate a grand edition of * Milton 's poetical works. The text was edited by William *Cowper , but the poet's mental indisposition prevented him completing the work and Johnson abandoned the project. Fuseli used the four pictures he had finished for Johnson, including Satan, Sin and Death , for his own enterprise. The Milton...

Introduction to the Pentateuch

Introduction to the Pentateuch   Reference library

G. I. Davies

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
32,329 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...be regarded as separate. To put it in a quite general formula: if ABCD represents a section of the Pentateuch, the assertion that A is of separate origin from B and that C is of separate origin from D is one thing; but the question of whether A belongs to the same source as C or D or neither, for example, is another question, and different answers to it will produce different theories about the larger sources of the Pentateuch. So on what basis is it argued that the Pentateuch is of composite origin? Four main kinds of criteria have commonly been used: 1. ...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...power, a community much given to tattle, which incidentally served to document more musical gossip for future historians than was common at the time. For its entertainment a local establishment of musicians was joined by visiting celebrities, aspirants, and protégés. George Bridgetower , 11-year-old ‘son of an African prince’, soon to be taken up by the Prince of Wales and to join Beethoven in the ‘Kreutzer’ Sonata's first performance, earned 200 guineas for a single appearance in December 1789 (some tickets selling at £5). The 13-year-old Hungarian...

Welsh Local and Family History

Welsh Local and Family History   Quick reference

D. Huw Owen

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,425 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...providing information on the lives of eminent Welsh people who died before 1970 . (Welsh Biography Online is the electronic version of these volumes.) The Society was also responsible for the Cymmrodorion Record Series, with thirteen volumes published from 1899 to 1936 . These included The Description of Penbrokeshire, by George Owen of Henllys , edited by Henry Owen in four volumes from 1902 to 1936 . The study of local and family history in Wales also benefited from record publishing ventures in England. The Record of Caernarvon , edited by Henry...

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800   Reference library

Andrew Murphy

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,077 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...uncommon for individual members of the trade to serve, effectively, as publisher-printers: purchasing the rights to print a book, financing the costs, and then printing it themselves. Thus, the *title-page for Edmund Spenser’s The Shepheardes Calender ( 1579 ) indicates that it was ‘Printed by Hugh Singleton , dwelling in Creede Lane neere vnto Ludgate at the signe of the gylden Tunne, and are there to be solde.’ Increasingly, however, title-pages came to bear a standard formula, which indicated that a book was printed ‘By X for Y.’ Thus, for example,...

Jihad and the Modern World

Jihad and the Modern World   Reference library

Jackson Sherman

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,768 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the jurist believes that a particular expression has become customary (as a formula for divorce). For his belief of what has become customary may stem from his training in the madhhab and his persistent study and disputation in the law. Rather, for an expression to become customary is for the common folk of a particular locale to understand one thing only whenever they hear it, not from the mouth of a jurist but from one of their own and according to their use of this expression for this particular purpose. This is the “becoming customary” that is sufficient...

Poetry

Poetry   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,432 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and Coleridge's ideas of ‘harmony’ and ‘reconciliation’ founded their new Romantic symbolism. In Coleridge's famous formula, poetry is ‘the balance and reconciliation of opposite and discordant qualities’. An artist of the grotesque, Blake sees black where they see white. Neither is the Lake view Byron's view, who like Blake also refuses to spiritualize nature. One of his typical moves, for example, is to study natural phenomena for moral analogies: the remarkable *epic similes in The Giaour ( 1813 ) provide good examples of this procedure. On the...

Introduction: Muslim Activist Intellectuals and Their Place in
          History

Introduction: Muslim Activist Intellectuals and Their Place in History   Reference library

John L. Esposito and John O. Voll

Makers of Contemporary Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,895 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... of the secular intellectual. For the first time in human history, and with growing confidence and audacity, men arose to assert that they could diagnose the ills of society and cure them with their own unaided intellects: more, that they could devise formulae whereby not merely the structure of society but the fundamental habits of human beings could be transformed for the better. Unlike their predessors, they were...

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus   Reference library

Christine Thomas

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,074 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...disseminate dissident and other forbidden literature but also to make up for the shortage of popular and perfectly legal publications. During the Brezhnev era, known as the ‘period of stagnation’, the book industries remained stable. In the 1970s and early 1980s , all printing was censored, and the central control of raw materials and printing continued to influence print runs. Authors were paid to a standard formula, according to genre (e.g. fiction or textbook) and length. Perhaps for this reason, the average length of a Soviet book in 1984 was about 136...

45 The History of the Book in New Zealand

45 The History of the Book in New Zealand   Reference library

Shef Rogers

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,037 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...for a newspaper to serialize a syndicated British work, original local writing was also published, especially accounts of inland exploration and of native flora and fauna. This local interest was reflected in the scientific nature of many of the 19 th -century *pamphlets printed for exchange via the postal services with colleagues internationally. The third governor-general, Sir George *Grey , was especially active in collecting and translating Maori songs, while fictional and semi-fictional accounts of settlers’ experiences provided popular topics for...

1700 to the Present

1700 to the Present   Reference library

Ronald Clements

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
7,692 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
18

...in Britain and Germany concerning the time of origin of the four surviving gospels and the possible sources upon which they had drawn. A major turning-point in the quest to recover a critical historical portrait of the figure of Jesus came through the publication by the German scholar D. F. Strauss (1808–74), of a work entitled Das Leben Jesu, kritisch bearbeitet, 2 vols., 1835 (ET The Life of Jesus Critically Examined ). Its early publication in English translation by the novelist George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans) in 1846 made awareness of the issues a...

Agricultural History

Agricultural History   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the publication of G. Slater , The English Peasantry and the Enclosure of the Common Fields ( 1907 ), A. H. Johnson , The Disappearance of the Small Landowner ( 1909 ), and E. C. K. Gonner , Common Land and Inclosure ( 1912 ). In 1911 the appearance of John and Barbara Hammond 's The Village Labourer inflamed the discussion and drew public attention to the fate of the rural †poor. The book has remained controversial and a stimulus to enquiry to the present day. Meanwhile, George Sturt , writing under the pen‐name of George Bourne , studied the...

Surnames

Surnames   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,649 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...equivalents, e.g. Lewis for Llewelyn, Hugh for Hywel, Edward for Iorwerth. These changes began long before the adoption of English‐type surnames in the 16th century. The naming pattern was complicated (as in other parts of Europe) by the use of pet forms of first names. Thus, the many names derived from John (including some versions imported from England) include Evan, Ieuan, Ifan, Jack, Jankin, Jeavon(s), Jenkins, Jennings, John(s), Jones, Sion, and others. Celtic names had their own pet forms, which have given rise to surnames: for example, Gittings is...

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual

Folklore, Customs, and Civic Ritual   Quick reference

Charles Phythian-Adams

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
6,037 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...high points between Christmas and Midsummer, from at least the days of Alfred's Wessex , were the traditional three extended holiday breaks in the year—at Christmas, Easter, and harvest (for which Whitsuntide was later substituted—not to speak of single holy days in between, which, like St George's Day, for example, might themselves eventually become occasions for public rituals. Because of this division of the medieval year, it has been suggested that the heightened symbolic content of the period between Christmas and Midsummer—which included all the...

Scottish Local and Family History

Scottish Local and Family History   Quick reference

David moody

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,622 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...), sport ( G. Jarvie ), holidays ( Alastair Durie ), and domestic interiors ( Ian Gow ). Illness (especially mental illness) and disease have recently received a lot of attention, appropriately for a country with such a distinguished medical tradition ( R. A. Houston , Allan W. Beveridge ). The study of working lives has been extended beyond the macro‐economic in order to consider the perspective of the workers themselves. Alan B. Campbell has done this for miners, Norman Murray for weavers, Richard Anthony for farm labourers, and Heather Holmes for migrant...

16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies

16 The History of Illustration and its Technologies   Reference library

Paul Goldman

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,997 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...thus rendering it unsuitable as a method for illustrating books. Perhaps the greatest book to combine anatomy and art published in England in the late 18 th century is The Anatomy of the Horse by George Stubbs, which appeared in 1799 . Technically complex—involving various intaglio methods—the 24 plates were intended not only for artists and designers, but for farriers and horse dealers. Additionally, the book demonstrates that illustration could be used for works of imaginative literature and for non-fiction. From the earliest years of printing,...

All’s Well That Ends Well

All’s Well That Ends Well   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,814 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...that her character is not very delicate, and it required all Shakespeare’s consummate skill to interest us for her’, Table Talk , 1835 , although elsewhere he describes her as ‘Shakespeare’s loveliest character’), and for most of the next century discussions of the play continued to centre on whether its hero (hapless victim or bounder) or its heroine (virtuous exemplar of self-help or rapist upstart) was less objectionable. George Bernard Shaw , for example, who praised the play as a prefiguration of Ibsen, sided with Helen, Frank Harris with Bertram....

Britain and America: A Common Heritage

Britain and America: A Common Heritage   Quick reference

George Redmonds

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,879 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...not all surnames are as distinctive as Butterworth, and in such cases the implications of the distribution patterns and the ramification are more likely to be missed. For example, in Reaney and Wilson's dictionary the surname Veale was one of four names entered under one heading, and by‐names from half a dozen different locations in England were offered in evidence: two possible etymologies for these were suggested. In 1881 there were just 1 289 Veales in Britain and over half of them were concentrated in Devon and Cornwall. The only other significant totals...

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