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Friedrich Nietzsche

Subject: Philosophy

(b Röcken, 15 Oct. 1844; d Weimar, 25 Aug. 1900). German philosopher. His influence on 19th- and 20th-century thought has been profound. He first met Wagner in 1868 and under ...

Nietzsche, Friedrich

Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844–1900)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
949 words

..., Friedrich ( 1844–1900 ) Born in Prussia, the son of a Lutheran minister who died insane four years later, Nietzsche spent the years of childhood with his mother, sister, grandmother, and two maiden aunts. In 1858 he entered boarding school, and in spite of poor health went on to study theology and classical philology at the university of Bonn, and then removed to Leipzig, where he became influenced by Kant , Schopenhauer , and the composer Richard Wagner . A year in the army in 1868 was cut short by illness, but his intellectual distinction...

Nietzsche, Friedrich

Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844–1900)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to American Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Literature
Length:
235 words

...of Bonn to study theology and classical philology but transferred a year later to the University of Leipzig to continue studying under his professor Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl, who had also transferred from Bonn to Leipzig. Nietzsche became the only student ever to publish in Ritschl’s journal, Rheinisches Museum . In 1869, the University of Leipzig conferred Nietzsche’s doctorate without examination or dissertation on the strength of his published writings alone, and he was appointed extraordinary professor of classical philology at the University of...

Nietzsche, Friedrich

Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844–1900)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...it. In other words, we shouldn’t judge life, or seek to enchain it, we should live it to its maximum potential. Further Reading: G. Deleuze Nietzsche and Philosophy (1983). J. Derrida Spurs: Nietzsche’s Styles (1979). A. Nehamas Nietzsche: Life as Literature (1985). L. Spinks Friedrich Nietzsche (2003). M. Tanner Nietzsche (1994). https://fns.org.uk/ The website of the Friedrich Nietzsche Society, which includes links to resources and discussion boards...

Nietzsche, Friedrich

Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844–1900)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,858 words

...Hallman, Max O. “ Nietzsche's Environmental Ethics. ” Environmental Ethics 13 (Summer 1991), 99–125. Langer, Monika . “The Role and Status of Animals in Nietzsche's Philosophy.” In H. Peter Steeves , ed. Animal Others: On Ethics, Ontology, and Animal Life . Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999, 75–92. Moles, Alaistair . Nietzsche's Philosophy of Nature and Cosmology . New York: Peter Lang, 1990. Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm . The Portable Nietzsche . Walter Kaufmann , tr. New York: Viking Penguin, 1982. Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm . The...

Nietzsche, Friedrich

Nietzsche, Friedrich  

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference

..., Friedrich ( 1844–1900 ) A late nineteenth-century German philosopher whose work has been of preeminent importance to a wide range of twentieth-century traditions, from critical theory to existentialism, poststructuralism , and postmodernism . Nietzsche was a prolific writer, but he experienced poor health and ultimately suffered a complete mental breakdown in 1889 . In the seventeen years preceding that breakdown, however, Nietzsche developed a highly original critical account of Western metaphysics and Christian morality, as well as a radical...

Nietzsche, Friedrich

Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844–1900)   Reference library

Allan H. Simmons

Oxford Reader’s Companion To Conrad

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
873 words

..., Friedrich ( 1844–1900 ), the first philosopher to confront fully the consequences of Western man’s loss of faith in religion. In his ‘Introduction’ to Thus Spake Zarathustra ( 1883–5 ), Friedrich Nietzsche announced: ‘God is dead! … I teach you the Superman’. If there is no transcendent God, then, according to Nietzsche , man chooses his own values, morality, truth, and standards of every kind to meet his needs. To this end, Nietzsche advocates an absolute skepticism towards past conventions and inherited concepts which, he claims, have...

Nietzsche, Friedrich

Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844–1900)   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
507 words

..., Friedrich ( 1844–1900 ), German philosopher who relentlessly insisted on the implications of his declaration in Also Sprach Zarathustra ( Thus Spoke Zarathustra , 1883–92 ), ‘that God is dead! ’ ( Portable Nietzsche , 124). George Eliot's alleged unwillingness to accept these perceived implications led Nietzsche to attack her in Götzen-Dämmerung ( Twilight of the Idols , 1889 G. Eliot . They are rid of the Christian God and now believe all the more firmly that they must cling to Christian morality. That is an English consistency; we do not...

Nietzsche, Friedrich

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A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
183 words

..., Friedrich ( 1844–1900 ) A German philosopher , one of the great (if not the greatest of) modern iconoclasts, Nietzsche has been read as the precursor of such varied phenomena as Nazism and postmodernism . Essentially, he appears to have been outraged by the lack of reflexivity among philosophers and scientists who failed to apply to their own thoughts the rigorous questioning they applied to those of others, a reaction which led him to dispute the supposed rationalism , scientism, and humanism of modern Western societies. Against this, he...

Nietzsche, Friedrich

Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844–1900)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to German Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,128 words

..., Friedrich (Röcken nr. Lützen, 1844–1900 , Weimar), a pastor's son, showed remarkable gifts at an early age. He was at Bonn and Leipzig universities and was elected at 25 ( 1869 ) to a chair of classical philosophy at Basel University. In the Franco-Prussian War ( see Deutsch-FranzÖSischer Krieg ) he was a volunteer in the medical service. In 1879 he resigned his chair on the ground of ill-health. During his tenure of the professorship Nietzsche wrote Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik ( 1872 ), in which, in addition to underlining...

Nietzsche, Friedrich

Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844–1900)   Reference library

Andreas Urs Sommer

The Oxford Guide to the Historical Reception of Augustine

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,345 words

... (Levante 1988) 621–8. A. U. Sommer , Der Geist der Historie und das Ende des Christentums. Zur ‘Waffengenossenschaft’ von Friedrich Nietzsche und Franz Overbeck (Berlin 1997). ——, Friedrich Nietzsches ‘Der Antichrist’. Ein philosophisch-historischer Kommentar 2000). ...

Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900)   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Political Quotations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
101 words

...0Friedrich Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 – 1900 German philosopher and writer I teach you the superman. Man is something to be surpassed. Also Sprach Zarathustra (1883) prologue I teach you the superman man is something to be surpassed Morality is the herd-instinct in the individual. Die fröhliche Wissenschaft (1882) morality is the herd-instinct Morality is the herd -instinct Master-morality and slave-morality. Jenseits von Gut und Böse (1886) master -morality slave -morality slave- morality At the base of all these aristocratic races the...

Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900)   Quick reference

Oxford Essential Quotations (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
547 words

...0Friedrich Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 – 1900 German philosopher and writer Woman was God's second blunder. Der Antichrist (1888) God is dead: but considering the state the species Man is in, there will perhaps be caves, for ages yet, in which his shadow will be shown. The Gay Science (1882) bk. 3, sect. 108; see Plato God is dead there will be caves shadow will be shown Morality is the herd-instinct in the individual. The Gay Science (1882) bk. 3, sect. 116 morality is the herd-instinct Morality is the herd -instinct One hears only those...

Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900)   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
532 words

...0Friedrich Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 – 1900 German philosopher and writer Woman was God's second blunder. Der Antichrist (1888) aphorism 48; see cowley woman was God's second blunder What I understand by ‘philosopher’: a terrible explosive in the presence of which everything is in danger. Ecce Homo (1908) ‘Die Unzeitgemässen’ sect. 3 understand by ‘ philosopher ’ terrible explosive everything is in danger Possessions are generally diminished by possession. The Gay Science (1882) ‘Die fröhliche Wissenschaft’ bk. 1, sect. 14 possessions ...

Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900)   Reference library

Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations

Reference type:
Quotation
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Quotations
Length:
1,247 words

...Friedrich Nietzsche 1844 – 1900 German philosopher Formerly one sought the feeling of the grandeur of man by pointing to his divine origin : this has now become a forbidden way, for at its portal stands the ape, together with other gruesome beasts, grinning knowingly as if to say: no further in this direction! One therefore now tries the opposite direction: the way mankind is going shall serve as proof of his grandeur and kinship with God. Alas this, too, is vain! At the end of this way stands the funeral urn of the last man and gravedigger (with...

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm (1844–1900)   Reference library

Barnabas Aspray

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
515 words

...The German edn of Nietzsche’s works is the ‘Musarionausgabe’ (23 vols, Munich, 1920–9). Eng. tr. of ‘complete works’ ed. O. Levy in 18 vols, 1909–13. Official life by E. Förster-Nietzsche , his sister (2 vols bound in 3, Leipzig, 1895–1904; shorter versions as Der junge Nietzsche (1912; Eng. tr., 1912) and Der einsame Nietzsche (1914; Eng. tr. [1915]). See also that of R. Hayman (1980). J. Young , Friedrich Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography (Cambridge, 2010). F. A. Lea , The Tragic Philosopher: Friedrich Nietzsche (London, 1993). T....

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm (1844–1900)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
106 words

..., Friedrich Wilhelm ( 1844–1900 ) German philosopher who rejected Christianity and the prevailing morality of his time and emphasized people's freedom to create their own values. He studied classical philology and taught Greek. In 1879 he abandoned philology for philosophy and worked out his view of the freedom of the individual over the next decade. In Thus Spake Zarathustra ( 1883–91 ), Nietzsche presented his notion of the Übermensch (‘Superman’), the idealized man, strong, positive, and able to impose his wishes upon the weak and...

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
124 words

..., Friedrich Wilhelm ( 1844–1900 ). Born at Röcken , Saxony, and brought up the son of a Lutheran pastor, he was a brilliant undergraduate at Bonn and Leipzig; and accepted the professorship of classical philology at Basel before graduating. He was a disciple of Schopenhauer , and Schopenhauer's ‘will to power’ was a basis of his philosophy that only the strong ought to survive, while sympathy perpetuates the unfit. His magnum opus is Also Sprach Zarathustra ( 1883–91 ; Eng. trans. Thus Spake Zarathustra ). It develops the idea of the ‘superman’,...

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm (1844–1900)   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
301 words

..., Friedrich Wilhelm ( 1844–1900 ), German philosopher . Whereas Hardy may have felt some interest in Nietzsche's criticism of Christianity and views on tragedy and aesthetics, his overall attitude to the German philosopher was negative ( LN ii 511–12). In his first entry on Nietzsche in the Literary Notes ( see notebooks ) from 1888 or 1899 , Hardy quotes the opinion that ‘N.'s sounder doctrines were put forth during his early life, & that his later utterances were tainted with insanity’, and then caustically adds: ‘The latter words are true...

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm (1844–1900)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
114 words

..., Friedrich Wilhelm ( 1844–1900 ), German philosopher . He was a professor at Basle from 1869 to 1879 , when he resigned because of ill-health. In 1889 he lost his reason. Nietzsche was a prophet rather than a systematic thinker. He held that life is the will to power; but power, not as exercised collectively by the masses, but the power of the great individual, the ‘superman’. To make this superman possible, the present values which are derived from Christianity must be abolished, since they are the portion of the weak and disinherited ‘herd’...

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm (1844–1900)([Philos.])   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Reference and Allusion (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
115 words

..., Friedrich Wilhelm [Philos.] ( 1844–1900 ) A German philosopher whose works contain writing on the themes of contempt for Christian ethics and for democracy, and admiration of the ‘will to power’, the Übermensch (superman), and the ‘master class’, the small group of superior people who dominate the mass of inferior people, the ‘herd’. Nietzsche's Übermensch was an ideal being whose superior physical and mental qualities represent the goal of human evolution. > Mentioned in the context of someone who strives for power ruthlessly, or believes...

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