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French Union

A reorganization in 1946 of the French Empire to implement the Brazzaville Declaration. It proved unacceptable to both African and Indochinese nationalists, especially as it established ...

French Union

French Union   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
57 words

...French Union A reorganization in 1946 of the French Empire to implement the Brazzaville Declaration . It proved unacceptable to both African and Indochinese nationalists, especially as it established little in the way of self‐government. It broke up following the independence of Indochina in 1954 and the creation of the French Community in 1958...

French Union

French Union   Reference library

Hubert Bonin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
996 words

...and Tunisia were not admitted to the French Union because—by a political fiction—they maintained their independence from the French Foreign Ministry and were not considered colonies. Budgets and administrations were to be decentralized. Some institutions promoted reforms. In much the same way that Queen Victoria reigned over the British Empire, the French president presided over the Union, aided by the Haut Conseil de l'᾽Union Française. This executive branch could rely on a legislative organ, the Assemblée de l᾽'Union Française, an assembly of 230...

French Union

French Union  

A reorganization in 1946 of the French Empire to implement the Brazzaville Declaration. It proved unacceptable to both African and Indochinese nationalists, especially as it established little in the ...
Union des Organisations Islamiques de France

Union des Organisations Islamiques de France   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
111 words

...Union des Organisations Islamiques de France Created in 1983 as a federation of local Islamic associations. Receives financial assistance from the Muslim World League and private individuals in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and United Arab Emirates. Particularly active in the center and east of France. Its leaders are influenced by the ideology of Egyptian and Tunisian Islamist movements and seek to support local associations in managing religious and educational activities specifically tailored to the needs of Muslims living in France, such as children's holiday...

Union des Organisations Islamiques de France

Union des Organisations Islamiques de France   Reference library

Martin A. Schain

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
632 words

... des Organisations Islamiques de France . The Union des Organisations Islamiques de France (UOIF) is France's largest political Islamic federation. It was founded by Islamist exiles from Morocco and Tunisia in 1983, and later incorporated Islamisists from Algeria. Composed of a network of 250 cultural, religious, and political associations, it influences perhaps a hundred others and, in addition to contributions by local affiliated associations, the UOIF receives financial assistance from the Muslim World League and from private individuals from Saudi...

Union des Organisations Islamiques de France

Union des Organisations Islamiques de France   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... des Organisations Islamiques de France . Created in 1983 in Nancy by a friend of Mustapha Machtour, the leader of the Muslim Brothers, the Union des Organisations Islamiques de France (UOIF) is a federation of Islamic local associations. It is one of the most important federations of Islamic associations in France. In 1994 , thirty local associations were full adherents of the UOIF, with about seventy affiliate associations (73 in 2007 ). Each category of association has the right to vote for the administrative council and the governing board of the...

France and the European Union

France and the European Union   Reference library

Christian Lequesne and Avtansh Behal

The Oxford Encyclopedia of European Union Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,829 words

...economic asymmetry between France and Germany have made this co-leadership more difficult. As most of the EU member states, France has also to cope domestically with more opposition to Europe and a growing Euroskepticism since the Treaty of Maastricht. This politicization of Europe restraints the margin of maneuver of France in the EU negotiations. This article analyzes France’s European Union (EU) politics and policies in four sections. First, it examines the French narrative on EU membership; second, the interactions between French and EU institutions; third,...

Union des Organisations Islamiques de France

Union des Organisations Islamiques de France  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
Created in 1983 as a federation of local Islamic associations. Receives financial assistance from the Muslim World League and private individuals in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and United Arab Emirates. ...
Muslim Unity and Arab Unity

Muslim Unity and Arab Unity   Reference library

Sāti‘ Al-Husrī

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,703 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...sane person to imagine union among Cairo, Baghdad, Tehran, Kabul, Haiderabad, and Bukhara, or Kashgar, Persia, and Timbuctoo, without there being a union among Cairo, Baghdad, Damascus, Mecca, and Tunis. It is not possible for any sane person to conceive the possibility of union among Turks, Arabs, Persians, Malayans, and Negroes, while denying unity to the Arabs themselves. If, contrary to fact, the Arab world were more extensive and wider than the Muslim world, it would have been possible to imagine a Muslim union without Arab union, and it would have been...

Henry VI Part 1

Henry VI Part 1   Reference library

Randall Martin and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,505 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...wide-ranging and often diffuse accounts in Edward Halle ’s Union of the Two Noble and Illustrious Families of Lancaster and York ( 1548 ), and the compilation edited by Raphael Holinshed, Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland (2nd edn. 1587 ). The established view is that Halle—traditionally regarded as more ideologically conservative—was Shakespeare’s chief source, but some scholars have questioned this priority. Robert Fabyan ’s New Chronicles of England and France ( 1516 ) probably supplied information for 1.3 and 3.1, while ...

War

War   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,919 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...narrowed the disparity of power between Britain and France. War rhetoric in eighteenth-century Britain consistently presented France as the country's ‘natural’ enemy, and stressed the theme of national danger to the extent that it is unrecognizable as the language of ‘limited’ war. Britain, in fact, was a bellicose society; its national consciousness shaped by competition with France, its exposure to invasion not infrequent, the interests it had to defend numerous and far-flung. Global rivalry with France was a significant factor in the first major conflict...

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus   Reference library

Christine Thomas

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,074 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...1925 there were 2,055 publishing houses in the Soviet Union, of which around 400 were private. Some of the best avant-garde artists of the time produced remarkable books. Innovation in literature was also tolerated. However, as the 1920s progressed, there was more and more state pressure for ‘approved’ literature (propaganda, socio-economic and political titles) to be published. The Soviet government also followed a policy ( 1925–32 ) of ‘indigenization’, promoting the indigenous languages of the Union’s non-Russian peoples. There was an initial period of...

43b The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (2): The Mainland

43b The History of the Book in Southeast Asia (2): The Mainland   Reference library

Jana Igunma

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,529 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... 1862 and Tonkin in 1883 . One of the earliest Vietnamese publishers was Imprimerie de l’Union (founded in the late 19 th century), which competed with French publishing houses in Saigon. After World War I, a large number of publishing houses were established in Hanoi, Huê, and Saigon. In the first three decades of the 20 th century, the French made great efforts to rein in publishing in Chinese characters and successfully promoted printing in quȯ̂c ngũ’ and French. Although a Khmer type had been developed by the end of the 19 th century, the first Khmer...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,165 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...societies ), the Hampden Club, the National Union of the Working Classes, or the Birmingham Political Union, trying with only partial success to give a clear lead to dozens, even hundreds, of other reform societies. The Yorkshire Association had attracted the support of about 8,000 men in the county on its launch in 1779 , the London Corresponding Society had over 3,000 active members at one stage and could attract many more supporters for some of its activities, while the Birmingham Political Union had over 10,000 members in 1832 . Most radical clubs...

47 The History of the Book in Canada

47 The History of the Book in Canada   Reference library

Patricia Lockhart Fleming

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,134 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the end of the pioneer period. By that date, printers were organizing and their first strike in Toronto had failed; power presses were speeding production; the first major literary magazine was thriving in Montreal, novels had been published in French and English; and Ontario and Quebec were joined in political union. In that year, James *Evans , a Wesleyan Methodist missionary in the Northwest, began to print in Cree using a syllabic system that the Aboriginal peoples adopted and still use today. 3 1840–1918 Between 1840 and 1918 Canada settled into its...

Class

Class   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,846 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...classes who form the real and efficient mass of public opinion’ to the gentry. Reformers in societies like the National Political Union and the Birmingham Political Union insisted that ‘the People’ were the middle and working classes who together constituted the industrious, useful, intelligent, and virtuous classes. In 1830 , Abraham Hanson addressed the issue directly in a meeting to establish a Moderate Reform Union: What constitutes a people or nation? According to my opinion, it is composed of that class of inhabitants who, by their moral and...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of modernity or more retrenched forces of tradition. In this view one could be a sceptic but not a total sceptic, a Christian but not an intolerant or rigidly orthodox one, an admirer of the status quo but not utterly uncritical. With the unions between England and Scotland in 1707 , and Ireland in 1800 [ see *Act of Union ], the dominant political tendency was towards unification, but the Enlightenment in Britain was never unified in this way. The *Scottish Enlightenment was in part an assertion of national identity by a country which had lost its...

Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...had done much after the *Act of Union to weld Scotland and England into a more effective greater Britain. The need for such informal ties was the stronger because of the lack of a clear institutional mechanism for the conduct of empire. Though the scale of British government had ineluctably expanded in response to the needs of war, the bureaucratic apparatus for dealing with the greatly increased scale of empire occasioned by naval *exploration [37] of the Pacific and military success against the French lagged well behind. In the late eighteenth...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,949 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...centres of the provinces there appeared numerous athenaeums, libraries, newsrooms, academies, museums, theatres, hotels, and art galleries, usually designed by prominent regional architects. In Liverpool there was John Foster I 's ( 1758–1827 ) Athenaeum (completed 1799 ), Union Newsroom ( 1800 ), and Theatre Royal ( 1802–3 ), as well as Harrison's Lyceum ( 1800–3 ). William Stark's Hunterian Museum ( 1804–5 ) in Glasgow was one of the earliest of thirty-six museums founded in Britain between 1800 and 1837 . And in Plymouth, John Foulston 's (...

Islam And Arab Nationalism

Islam And Arab Nationalism   Reference library

‘Abd Al-Rahmān Al-Bazzāz

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,393 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...political, social—or, at least, it is not possible under the present conditions, even if we agreed to limit this union to the parts of the Muslim homeland which are contiguous. And even if we assumed that these parts could be united, then the unification of the parts which speak the same language, inherit the same literature, and have the same history, is more urgently needed and more worthy of consideration; it is not natural to expect the union of Iraq with Iran or Afghanistan, for instance, before Syria and Jordan are united. A view contrary to this is...

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