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French Second Empire style

Eclectic mixture of Baroque, Empire, François Ier, Louis Quatorze, Louis Seize, Neo-Classical, and Renaissance styles prevalent in the France of Napoleon III (1852–70). ...

French Second Empire style

French Second Empire style   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Architecture (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
38 words

... Second Empire style Eclectic mixture of Baroque , Empire , François I er , Louis Quatorze , Louis Seize , Neo-Classical , and Renaissance styles prevalent in the France of Emperor Napoléon III ( r....

French Second Empire style

French Second Empire style  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Eclectic mixture of Baroque, Empire, François Ier, Louis Quatorze, Louis Seize, Neo-Classical, and Renaissance styles prevalent in the France of Napoleon III (1852–70).Lampugnani (ed.) & Dinsmoor ...
Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Bayly, C. A. , Imperial Meridian: The British Empire and the World 1780–1830 , London, 1989; Cain, P. J. , & Hopkins, A. G. , British Imperialism and Expansion 1688–1914 , London, 1993; Harlow, V. T. , The Founding of the Second British Empire, 1763–1793 , London, 1952; Holland Rose, J. , Newton, A. P. , & Benians, E. A. , eds., The New Cambridge History of the British Empire , ii: The Growth of the New Empire, 1783–1870, Cambridge, 1940; Hyam, R. , Britain's Imperial Century, 1815–1914: A Study of Empire and Expansion , London, 1993; Knaplund, P. , ...

French Family Names

French Family Names   Reference library

Simon Lenarčič and Susan Whitebook

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
7,086 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...with properties; in the latter case, they were generally Latinized with the ending -acum ‘property of’. The Roman style of personal names, with the forename (Latin praenomen ), the tribal name ( gens ), and the nickname or surname ( cognomen ), came to be abandoned in the north of France as the Germanic tribes overcame the remnants of the empire in the 5th century ad . Thereafter, the Frankish (and general ancient Germanic) style prevailed: a single name, typically composed of two vocabulary elements, one of which was often shared with a parent. ...

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans   Reference library

Ekaterina Rogatchevskaia and Aleksandra B. Vraneš

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,024 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Cyrillic printing, the second Cyrillic press beginning production in Montenegro as early as in 1493 . Glagolitic printing was localized in Croatia and Slovenia, although Glagolitic presses also operated in Italy. 3 Bulgaria The Church Slavonic MSS written in the first Bulgarian empire are richly *illuminated . The earliest Cyrillic MS of Bulgarian origin is the Codex *Suprasliensis . In the 14 th century, the Tǎrnovo school of literature developed a distinct style of handwriting and illumination. One of the best examples of this style is the Gospels of Tsar...

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...country was acquiring increasing diplomatic, trade, and colonial ties [ see *empire, 5 ]. Thus the European trading companies established at Canton in the eighteenth century provided a fragile foothold in China and encouraged the growth of interest in products of the Chinese empire. The creation in 1790 of a Chinese Room at the Prince of Wales's London residence of Carlton House, followed in 1802–4 by the decoration of the Regent's Pavilion at Brighton in a fanciful Chinese style by the firm of Crace, took place during a period of increasing diplomatic...

5 The European Medieval Book

5 The European Medieval Book   Reference library

Christopher de Hamel

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,077 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...in 1384 and 1390 . Unlike medieval France and England, Italy was still a mass of small independent principalities, dukedoms, and republics, associated only loosely by proximity to each other and by a similar language. There was none of the centralized administration that helped concentrate the French book trade in Paris, or that of the Holy Roman Empire in Prague and Vienna. Even the papacy was exiled from Rome, and the best-documented trade in MS production for the papal court is at Avignon, in southern France, where the popes lived from 1309 to ...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

Vincent Giroud

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,215 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...and literacy, a growing concern for popular libraries manifested itself during the Second Empire. The Société Franklin, founded in 1862 , devoted itself to this effort. The École des Chartes, possibly the century’s greatest legacy to librarianship, was founded in 1821 in order to train *palaeographers and *archivists . It was moved in 1897 to the new Sorbonne buildings. The period 1870–1914 confirmed and accelerated the trends of the second book revolution. Although around 6,000 titles were printed in 1828 , the figure had risen to...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

Eugenia Roldán Vera

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,881 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...Spanish empire in the last decades of the 18 th century resulted in an expansion of basic literacy, thus expanding the market for print. Moreover, changes in maritime trade brought about by the French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars led the Spanish and Portuguese empires to lose some of their monopoly over the Americas. This facilitated the smuggling of French and British books to the colonies, which enlarged the libraries of Spanish-American creole elites and gradually made them more cosmopolitan. 3 Independence and the print revolution The French invasion...

Israel among the Nations: The Persian Period

Israel among the Nations: The Persian Period   Reference library

Mary Joan Winn Leith

Oxford History of the Biblical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
21,095 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

... the empire. Originally the native tongue of small Syrian and Mesopotamian states, Aramaic became the international commercial, administrative, and diplomatic language of the Assyrian empire in the eighth century. Aramaic's alphabetic script was more flexible than Akkadian cuneiform. Second Kings 18.26 (= Isa. 36.11 ) shows Aramaic in diplomatic use, as well as the general Palestinian populace's ignorance of it in the eighth century. During the Neo-Babylonian period, however, Aramaic became the main spoken language of the Neo-Babylonian empire, and...

Introduction to the Apocrypha

Introduction to the Apocrypha   Reference library

Martin Goodman

The Oxford Bible Commentary

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,268 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...language of religious as well as secular discourse, and there was little knowledge of Hebrew or Aramaic. In the Land of Israel, both Hebrew and Aramaic were in general use down to the end of the Second Temple period, but the native Jerusalemite Josephus proved capable at the end of the first century ce of writing complex literary works in Greek, albeit in a style for which he felt it necessary to apologize (Jos. Ant. 20. 263–4). 16. Religious Developments By the time the books of the Apocrypha were composed there had emerged many different varieties of...

The Bible in Judaism

The Bible in Judaism   Reference library

Philip Alexander

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
8,614 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
10

...in the direction of fundamentalism. This can be illustrated from the development of religious Bible commentary in the English-speaking world. Before the Second World War a typical (and influential) Bible commentary among English-speaking Orthodox Jews would have been The Pentateuch and Haftorahs (1929–36) edited by J. H. Hertz, then Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the British Empire, in collaboration with a number of Anglo-Jewish scholars. Writing broadly within the tradition of Hirsch, Hertz proclaimed in his introduction to the work:...

Mythology

Mythology   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,714 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...manuscripts at the *British Museum . In his Memoirs Maurice explained the ideological urgency of defensive mythography in the revolutionary decade of the 1790s: ‘India, and the imagined antiquity of that vast Empire and the arts and sciences there calculated … were the debatable ground on which [the] atheistical rulers [of post-revolutionary France] had taken their determined stand, during their efforts to root out Christianity and demoralise the world.’ Maurice viewed the Trinity as a primordial revealed truth ‘coeval with Revelation; and the … incarnation...

47 The History of the Book in Canada

47 The History of the Book in Canada   Reference library

Patricia Lockhart Fleming

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,134 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of New France and a centre for trade, civil administration, and missionary activities. Although several of the governors requested equipment for the production of official documents, their proposals failed, leaving New France without a printing press. Forms and bills of exchange were ordered from France or copied locally; proclamations were published orally and circulated in MS. A Huron *catechism was printed in Rouen in 1630 ; a book of ritual for the diocese of Quebec bore a Paris imprint of 1703 . It was not until after the conquest of New France, when...

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries

23 The History of the Book in the Low Countries   Reference library

Paul Hoftijzer

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,047 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
3

...part of northwestern France first came into contact with written culture during the Roman period (1 st –4 th century ad ). Archaeological evidence is scarce, but certainly in larger Gallo-Roman settlements, writing for administrative, commercial, and educational purposes appears to have been used on a regular basis. How much of this practice survived the onslaught of the Migration Period is uncertain, but by the 6 th century writing returned at least in the southern Netherlands. In the north, the former border region of the Roman empire, MSS did not appear...

Introduction: Muslim Activist Intellectuals and Their Place in
          History

Introduction: Muslim Activist Intellectuals and Their Place in History   Reference library

John L. Esposito and John O. Voll

Makers of Contemporary Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,895 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...42 In contrast, the more establishment or bureaucratic ulama operate more in the style of intellectuals as “preservers” and “caretakers.” 43 The structures and contexts of Muslim societies have important resources for the intellectuals of the modern era. The general evolution of the roles of ulama in the Islamic world and the specific development of the tajdid tradition as a style intellectual activity provide an important foundation for the emergence of the ...

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World

38 The History of the Book in the Muslim World   Reference library

Geoffrey Roper

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,249 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...printed books, the presentation of such information became far more accurate and reliable. The second category of illustration consisted of pictures introduced into the texts of lithographed books; these were often copied from, or in the style of, miniatures in MSS. Such miniatures are a notable feature of Persian lithographed books of the 19 th century, where they usually accompany literary works from an earlier period. Although they are broadly in the style of MS miniatures, it has been observed that they belong more to the domain of popular art than to...

Arabic and Muslim Family Names

Arabic and Muslim Family Names   Reference library

David Justice

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
6,700 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the Maghreb, French is a major influence, and French lacks w as an alphabetic character (except in loanwords). Consequently the transcription into the Roman alphabet comes out as alaoui in French, and is used in that form by Americans of Moroccan origin. The same Francophone phenomenon shows up in a great many transcriptions of surnames from Lebanon and Syria, e.g. in aoun , from Arabic ʿaun ‘aid’, while the Arabic bārūdī appears in French garb as the surname baroudi , or is Americanized as baroody . Other Frenchstyle transcriptions include...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...new political ideas [ see *empire, 5 ], and the development of new religious and scientific ideas associated especially with Rational Dissent. Crucial to this liberal religious revival was the emergence of a new generation of leaders from outside the Presbyterian heartland, including Richard Price and Joseph *Priestley from Calvinistic Independent backgrounds and Theophilus Lindsey ( 1723–1808 ) from the Church of England. Rational Dissent was sustained by excellent educational institutions, most notably the second Warrington Academy ( 1757–83 ). It...

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus   Reference library

Christine Thomas

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,074 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

... an imperial edict authorized the synod to search all bookshops and publishing houses in the empire. The subsequent ‘book raids’, especially stringent in Moscow, temporarily paralysed the book trade, although ultimately few books were confiscated. On reopening, bookshops recovered quickly until the outbreak of the French Revolution. In 1790–95 several writers and publishers were arrested, books were confiscated, and printing offices closed down. Imports of French books and newspapers were banned. The first (official) presses had been established in the...

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