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French Community

A political union superseding the French Union, established by France in 1958 and comprising metropolitan France, its overseas departments and territories, and seven former French colonies ...

French Community

French Community   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
60 words

... Community A political union superseding the French Union, established by France in 1958 and comprising metropolitan France, its overseas departments and territories, and 12 French colonies in Africa, which were granted substantial autonomy as ‘member states’. The Community quickly became defunct when all the member states became fully independent in 1960 , but it was not formally abolished until 1995...

French Community

French Community (1958–60)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
95 words

...French Community ( Communauté Française ) ( 1958–60 ) A successor to the French Union , it consisted of France and most of her west African colonies. The latter gained considerable self‐government, though France remained responsible for foreign, economic, and financial policies, as well as for defence. The Community ceased to be effective when its African members gained independence. It still exists in name, and its members have sought close cultural and economic links with France on an individual basis, e.g. through linking their currencies to the French...

French Community

French Community   Reference library

The Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
48 words
French Community

French Community   Reference library

Australian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
48 words
French Community

French Community  

A political union superseding the French Union, established by France in 1958 and comprising metropolitan France, its overseas departments and territories, and seven former French colonies in Africa, ...
Utilizing Participatory Action Research to Build an Inclusive Classroom Community in France

Utilizing Participatory Action Research to Build an Inclusive Classroom Community in France   Reference library

Nicole Eilers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of School Reform

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
6,961 words

...In France, a growing number of private, independent schools seek to create the inclusive environments that, despite the ministry of education’s initiatives focused on inclusion, many caregivers and children feel the public school system does not yet provide. One such classroom community engaged in a PAR project to create an inclusive classroom that responded to the evolving needs and interests of the community, resulting in a sense of belonging for all members. This article begins with an overview of the history and barriers to inclusive education in France,...

French Family Names

French Family Names   Reference library

Simon Lenarčič and Susan Whitebook

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
7,086 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...where, given the heavy presence of French-language institutions and the closely bound community, they have retained many of their customs and traditional songs and tales, and, of course, their French names. The Huguenots in North America America has long been the goal of refugees, and French refugees included the Huguenots, a group of French Protestants. Some fled the wars of religion of the 16th century, but it was the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 by Louis XIV that spurred thousands to leave France. The edict had granted Protestants certain...

An Islamic Response to Imperialism

An Islamic Response to Imperialism   Reference library

Sayyid Jamāl and Al-Dīn Al-Afghānī

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,537 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...universal. It is philosophy that shows man human prerequisites. It shows the sciences what is necessary. It employs each of the sciences in its proper place. If a community did not have philosophy, and all the individuals of that community were learned in the sciences with particular subjects, those sciences could not last in that community for a century, that is, a hundred years. That community without the spirit of philosophy could not deduce conclusions from these sciences. The Ottoman Government and the Khedivate of Egypt have been opening schools for the...

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches

Local and Regional History: Modern Approaches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,365 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of local communities was the major academic concern of local historians during the second half of the 20th century. The works of rural sociologists such as W. M. Williams , The Sociology of an English Village ( 1957 ), which studied Gosforth (Cumberland), and David Jenkins, The Agricultural Community in South‐West Wales at the Turn of the Century ( 1971 ), which analysed Troedyraur (Cardiganshire), together with a new interest in social history, influenced the next generation of rural community studies: Margaret Spufford, Contrasting Communities: English...

Jewish Family Names

Jewish Family Names   Reference library

Alexander Beider

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
7,422 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of surnames used by Jews in the western Mediterranean region: A Dictionary of Jewish Surnames from Maghreb, Gibraltar, and Malta (New Haven, CT, 2017) and A Dictionary of Jewish Surnames from Italy, France and “Portuguese” Communities. Including Surnames of Jews from Continental Italy, Non-Ashkenazic Communities in France, and Sephardic Communities in Western Europe (after the 1490s) and the Americas (New Haven, CT, 2019). All these books include a dictionary portion (covering about 74,000, 32,000, 35,000, 10,000, and 10,000 surnames, respectively), in...

War

War   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,919 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...narrowed the disparity of power between Britain and France. War rhetoric in eighteenth-century Britain consistently presented France as the country's ‘natural’ enemy, and stressed the theme of national danger to the extent that it is unrecognizable as the language of ‘limited’ war. Britain, in fact, was a bellicose society; its national consciousness shaped by competition with France, its exposure to invasion not infrequent, the interests it had to defend numerous and far-flung. Global rivalry with France was a significant factor in the first major conflict...

Italian Family Names

Italian Family Names   Reference library

Enzo Caffarelli

Dictionary of American Family Names (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Names studies
Length:
4,064 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...different parts of Italy at different times: classical and Byzantine Greek, Germanic (mostly Longobardic and Frankish), Arabic, Catalan, Castilian Spanish, Norman French, early modern French, Albanian, and Slavic languages. Surviving colonies of other speech communities (Greek, Albanian, etc.) still exist in southern Italy, while in the north the border areas have in many places maintained their French, Provençal, German, or Slovene languages, or (even if now Italian-speaking) show the influence of these languages in their family names. Note, however, that the...

Law

Law   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,210 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...for ‘due process’ by the community before interference with those liberties—especially trial by jury in serious criminal cases. But the characteristically eighteenth-century concept of the law of the land as the guarantor of fundamental individual rights and the symbol of popular participation in government moved into decline. In addition to the corrosive effects of the American and French revolutions, it was further diminished by the gradual resort to increased statutory intervention in the affairs of the community after 1800 , tending to regulation...

Reforming Islam and Islamic Law

Reforming Islam and Islamic Law   Reference library

Muhammad Sa‘id Al-‘Ashmawi

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,896 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...etc., were initially declared during the French Revolution (1789 c.e .). In time, the concept became widely accepted, especially when the human race suffered from the denial of human rights by totalitarian governments, fascistic parties, misleading media and tyranny in general. Today, human rights constitute an international call and a humanitarian creed to liberate people from any fear or tyranny, to free our capacities from any obstacles so that we may live in peace, spread peace and interrelate with the community, humanity and the cosmos. It is necessary to...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and events both in Britain and France during the 1790s taught that organization was an inevitable component of radical political reform and revolutionary change [ see *utopianism, 9 ]. There should be little doubt that France played the major role in transforming the meaning of revolution. The French case peppers the works of Marx and Lenin and underlies their understanding of the revolutionary process. But there is a distinctive story to be told of the way that the events of the 1790s translated the *French Revolution into a dual challenge to...

Participation in Non-Islamic Government

Participation in Non-Islamic Government   Reference library

Rachid Ghannouchi

Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,498 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the Islamic government directly. In this case the community is faced with tough options. Realism and flexibility are among the most important features of Islamic methodology. These features explain the fact that this religion is an eternal way of life that is suitable for all times and all places. Furthermore, the lives of human communities, including the community of Muslims, are in continuous dynamism just like the life of an individual human being. Fluctuations between health and sickness, victory and defeat, success and failure, progress...

Land

Land   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,951 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...linking native traditions of middle-class Dissent with *Scottish Enlightenment and French thought, as well as with republican rhetoric from America, was also inflected by issues arising from agricultural change. Thomas *Paine 's Agrarian Justice ( 1796 ), for instance, argued for an ameliorative agrarian capitalism. Although Paine did not advocate the expropriation of farm-owners, he none the less argued that they had responsibilities to their communities which derived from an original common ownership of the land. In legal title, the commons and...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...to the French Revolution, but the English Catholic community did recover its nerve. It was revitalized by the activities of men like Charles Butler ( 1750–1832 ), secretary to the Catholic Committee from 1782 , John Milner ( 1752–1826 ), Vicar Apostolic of the Midland District, and William Eusebius Andrews ( 1773–1837 ), a fiery journalist and publisher who linked the cause of *Catholic emancipation with the wider campaign for civil and religious liberty. Other elements of the Enlightenment were rather more fragmented. With the French Revolution,...

The Islamic Veil (Hijab)

The Islamic Veil (Hijab)   Reference library

Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,273 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Sayyid Tantawi, declared before the French minister of internal affairs, Nicolas Sarkozy, who visited al-Azhar, the most famous religious university in the Islamic Sunnite world. On Dec. 30, 2003: The veil is a divine obligation for Muslim women. If it is not respected, God will pass judgement for it not being worn. No Muslim, ruling or ruled, has the right to oppose this obligation. However, this obligation is valid if Muslim women live in a Muslim state. Yet if they find themselves in a non-Muslim state (like France, for example) and their rulers want...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...for instance, *Saint-Simonianism in France and Owenism in Britain. The distinction was primarily based on the faith such movements showed in public opinion as a means of changing society. The appeal to all classes, on the basis of reason and justice, appeared historically naïve to Marx and Engels who argued that only class struggle, derived from a ‘scientific’ theory of history, could bring about socialism in the late nineteenth century. From 1820 to 1850 , Robert *Owen tirelessly pushed his vision of rural communities in which needs, rather than wants,...

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