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Frederick II

(Roman emperor) (1194–1250) King of Sicily, emperor, and king of Jerusalem, Frederick was heir to the greatness and turmoil of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. Born in Sicily and ...

Frederick II

Frederick II (1712–86)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
130 words

... II ( the Great Frederick II ) ( 1712–86 ) King of Prussia ( 1740–86 ). Succeeding his father, Frederick William I , he made Prussia a major European power. In the War of the Austrian Succession ( 1740–48 ), Frederick gained the province of Silesia from Austria. During the Seven Years' War ( 1756–63 ), his brilliant generalship preserved the kingdom from a superior hostile alliance. In 1760 , Austro-Russian forces reached Berlin, but Russia's subsequent withdrawal from the war enabled Frederick to emerge triumphant. He directed Prussia's...

Frederick II

Frederick II (1194–1250)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
317 words
Illustration(s):
1

... italy and sicily ; roman empire [hohenstaufen dynasty] . Golden Bull of Frederick II, August 1237. Vereinigte Domstifter zu Merseburg und Naumburg Michael Frassetto D. Abulafia , Frederick II: A Medieval Emperor (1988). E. Kantorowicz , Frederick II, 1194–1250 ( 2...

Frederick II

Frederick II (1712–86)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
89 words

... II (or Frederick the Great ) ( 1712–86 ) King of Prussia ( 1740–86 ). On his succession Frederick promptly claimed Silesia, launching Europe into the War of the Austrian Succession ( 1740–48 ). During the Seven Years War ( 1756–63 ), he joined with Britain and Hanover against a coalition of France, Russia, Austria, Spain, Sweden, and Saxony, and succeeded in considerably strengthening Prussia’s position. By the end of his reign he had doubled the area of his country. He was a distinguished patron of the...

Frederick II

Frederick II (1194–1250)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
135 words

... II ( 1194–1250 ) Holy Roman Emperor ( 1215–50 ), king of Germany ( 1212–20 ), Sicily ( 1198–1250 ) and Jerusalem ( 1229–50 ); son of Emperor Henry VI . Frederick devoted himself to Italy and Sicily. He promised to make his son, Henry , King of Sicily but gave him Germany ( 1220 ) instead. Frederick's claims on Lombardy and postponement of a crusade angered Pope Honorius III , who excommunicated him and revived the Lombard League . Frederick finally embarked on a crusade in 1228 , and was crowned King of Jerusalem. In Sicily, he set up a...

Frederick II

Frederick II (1194–1250)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... II ( 1194–1250 ), German king (r. 1212–1250 ), King of Sicily (r. 1198–1250 ), and Holy Roman Emperor (r. 1212–1250 ). Frederick II is certainly one of the most interesting medieval rulers. His long reign and his manifold military campaigns can be divided into four periods. The first period ( 1194–1220 ) was marked by multiple threats to Frederick’s life and position. After the death of his father, Henry VI, and his mother, Constance, Frederick grew up in the city of Palermo and became the pawn of different Sicilian parties and especially German...

Frederick II

Frederick II (1194–1250)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
238 words

... II ( 1194–1250 ) Holy Roman Emperor ( 1220–50 ) . The grandson of Frederick I (Barbarossa), Frederick II was known as Stupor Mundi (‘Wonder of the World’) because of the breadth of his power and of his administrative, military, and intellectual abilities. He was crowned King of the Germans in 1215 and Holy Roman Emperor in 1220 , but his reign was dominated by a long and ultimately unsuccessful struggle for power with the papacy. In 1228 he led a successful crusade to Jerusalem, obtaining, in 1229 , Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem for...

Frederick II

Frederick II   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
166 words

... II ( 1534–88 ), King of Denmark and Norway, was the son of King Christian III and Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg (elder sister of Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg, the mother of Eric XIV of Sweden). Frederick acceded to the throne in 1559 , and thereafter his reign was dominated by his enmity for his cousin King Eric . From 1562 to 1570 they were at war in the conflict known in English as the ‘Seven Years War in the North’. Thereafter Frederick's reign was peaceful, but from 1571 he strove to secure Danish dominance of the North Sea and the Baltic,...

Frederick II

Frederick II (1194–1250)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
180 words

... II ( 1194–1250 ), Holy Roman Emperor and King of Sicily. The son of the Emp. Henry VI ( d. 1197 ), he grew up in Palermo. When his guardian, Innocent III , needed his help against the Guelph Emp. Otto IV, Frederick was able to regain his lost family position north of the Alps. At his coronation in 1215 he took the cross of a crusader , but kept postponing his departure. Excommunicated by Gregory IX , he set out in 1228 . He regained Jerusalem by agreement with the Sultan. Back in Italy he extracted absolution from the Pope in 1230 . He...

Frederick II

Frederick II (1194–1250)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
339 words

... Frederick himself—two love canzoni and and a moralizing sonnet , all reflecting the general themes and conventions of the school. He also composed a technical treatise on falconry, De arte venandi cum avibus [ see also Hunting And Falconry ]. After Frederick's death German power in Southern Italy soon came to an end, when the French under Charles of Anjou defeated and killed his natural son Manfredi in 1266 and his grandson Conradin in 1268 . [ Christopher Kleinhenz ] See E. H. Kantorowicz , Frederick II (1931); D. Abulafia , Frederick II:...

Frederick II

Frederick II (1194–1250)   Reference library

Matthew Mills

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2022
Subject:
Religion
Length:
894 words

...studies include G. Masson, Frederick II of Hohenstaufen: A Life (London, 1957). T. C. van Cleve , The Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen: Immutator Mundi (Oxford, 1972). J. Fleckenstein (ed.), Probleme um Friedrich II . (Sigmaringen, 1974). G. Wolf (ed.) Stupor Mundi: Zur Geschichte Friedrichs II. von Hohenstaufen (Darmstadt, 1982). D. Abulafia, Frederick II: A Medieval Emperor (London, 1988, repr. 2002). W. Stürner, Friedrich II (Darmstadt, 1992). A. Sommerlechner, Stupor Mundi? Kaiser Friedrich II. und die mittelalterliche...

Frederick II

Frederick II (1712–1786)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,793 words

... II “the Great” ( 1712–1786 ; reigned 1740–1786 ) king of Prussia, enlightened writer, and archetypal “enlightened absolutist.”. Perhaps the greatest genius ever to sit on a royal throne, Frederick was the son of King Frederick William I (reigned 1713–1740 ) and Sophia Dorothea , a daughter of King George I of England. His childhood was made profoundly unhappy by his father's determination to turn him into a soldier and to deny him access to any kind of high culture. After an abortive attempt to flee to England in 1730 , Frederick was arrested,...

Frederick William II

Frederick William II (1744–97)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
63 words

... William II ( 1744–97 ) King of Prussia ( 1786–97 ), nephew and successor of Frederick II (the Great) . He joined ( 1792 ) the alliance against France, but made peace in 1795 in order to consolidate his acquisitions in the e as a result of the Second ( 1793 ) and Third ( 1795 ) Partitions of Poland. He kept an extravagant court and left the country virtually...

Frederick William II

Frederick William II (1744–97)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
60 words

... William II ( 1744–97 ) King of Prussia ( 1787–97 ). He was the nephew of Frederick II and a man of little ability, though a patron of the arts. He fought in the early campaigns against the French Revolutionary armies but became more concerned with Poland gaining land, including Warsaw, in the partitions of 1793 and 1795...

Frederick II Hohenstaufen

Frederick II Hohenstaufen   Reference library

Michael J. Angold

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
339 words

... II Hohenstaufen , king of Sicily ( 1198–1250 ), German emperor ( 1212–50 ); born Jesi 26 Dec. 1194 , died Fiorentino 13 Dec. 1250 . In his long struggle with the papacy, Frederick found it useful to build up contacts in Byz., esp. with John III Vatatzes (E. Merendino, ByzantinoSicula 2 [ 1974 ] 371–83). By the late 1230s rumors were circulating in the West that Vatatzes had promised to do homage to Frederick if he helped him recover Constantinople. The Nicaean emperor contributed troops to Frederick's forces at the siege of Brescia in 1238 ....

Frederick II, Emperor

Frederick II, Emperor (1194–1250)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,575 words

... Italy . E. Kantorowicz , L'Empereur Frédéric II , Paris, 1987 (1st ed. 1927). Stupor mundi: Zur Geschichte Friedrichs II. von Hohenstaufen , G. Wolf (ed.), Darmstadt, 1966 (2nd ed. 1989). H.-M. Schaller , Kaiser Friedrich II. Verwandler der Welt , Frankfurt, Zurich, 1971. Die Zeit der Staufer , Stuttgart, 1977 (4 vol.). Federico II e l'arte del Duecento italiano , Galatina, 1980. A. C. Willemsen , Bibliographie zur Geschichte Friedrichs II. und der letzten Staufer , Munich, 1986. D. Abulafia , Frederick II: A Medieval Emperor , London, 1988. J. P. Lomax...

Booker Noe II, Frederick

Booker Noe II, Frederick   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Spirits and Cocktails

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021

...Booker Noe II, Frederick (1929–2004), known universally as “Booker,” was among an extraordinary post–World War II generation of visionary distillers including Jimmy Russell of Wild Turkey, Elmer T. Lee of George T. Stagg (now Buffalo Trace), Parker Beam of Heaven Hill, and Jim Rutledge of Four Roses. Of this whisky-maker pantheon, none was larger, in every way, than Jim Beam’s grandson, Booker Noe, with his six feet four (193 cm) frame and personality to match. Born in Springfield, Kentucky, just outside of Bardstown, during the height of Prohibition,...

Frederick II, king of Prussia

Frederick II, king of Prussia (1712–86)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
60 words

... II, king of Prussia ( 1712–86 ) A keen book lover , preferring French literature and modest formats, he furnished his residences with libraries. The red morocco volumes bore a letter indicating the royal residence where they were housed. Frederick started a printing office in Berlin Castle. Johannes Saltzwedel B. Krieger , Friedrich der Große und seine Bücher ...

Frederick (Friedrich) II, King of Prussia

Frederick (Friedrich) II, King of Prussia (1712–86)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century German Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,736 words

... (Friedrich) II, King of Prussia ( 1712–86 ) Friedrich (Frederick) was born in Berlin on 24 January 1712 , the eldest son of Crown Prince Frederick William I , later to become the second King of Prussia, and his wife Sophie Dorothea of Hanover, daughter of George I of Britain . When his father died in 1740 , Frederick ascended to the throne. Under his reign and as a result of his wars against Austria and her allies, which he had precipitated by his invasion of Silesia in the year of his accession, a considerably enlarged Prussia emerged as one...

Mutesa II, Sir Edward Frederick

Mutesa II, Sir Edward Frederick (1924–69)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
122 words

...II, Sir Edward Frederick ( 1924–69 ) The last Kabaka of Buganda ( 1939–63 ) and President of Uganda ( 1963–66 ). He assumed office after a regency, aged 18. Progressive in spirit, he nevertheless backed the protectorate government in suppressing Buganda nationalist risings in 1945 and 1949 . In 1953 , fearing the loss of Buganda’s independence, he claimed the right of his kingdom to secede from the Ugandan protectorate. This was denied him by the Ugandan High Court, and he was deported by the British. In 1955 he returned as a constitutional monarch...

Frederick II King of Prussia

Frederick II King of Prussia (24 Jan. 1712)   Reference library

Wendy Thompson and Basil Smallman

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
277 words

...Frederick II King of Prussia , [ Frederick the Great ; Friedrich der Grosse ] ( b Berlin , 24 Jan. 1712 ; d Sanssouci, nr Potsdam , 17 Aug. 1786 ). German emperor (from 1740 ) and an important patron of the music of his time. His earliest musical grounding (in thorough bass) came from the Berlin cathedral organist, Gottlieb Heyne , after which, from 1728 , he received instruction in flute playing and composition from J. J. Quantz . As crown prince he assembled, at Ruppin and Rheinsberg, several leading musicians, including Franz and ...

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