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Frederick I

(c. 1123–90) King of Germany and Holy Roman emperor (1152–90). He made a sustained attempt to subdue Italy and the papacy, but was eventually defeated at the Battle of Legnano in ...

Frederick I

Frederick I   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... I ( 1471–1533 ), King of Denmark and Norway, was the second son of King Christian I , who had been succeeded by his sons John and Christian II . In 1522 Frederick led a revolt against Christian II, who fled to the Netherlands, and assumed the throne himself; when Christian attempted to mount an invasion of Norway in 1531 , Frederick captured and imprisoned him. In the course of Frederick's reign the Reformation was introduced into Denmark by Hans Tausen . Dansk Biografisk Leksikon s.v. Frederik I; Neue Deutsche Biographie s.v. Friedrich I...

Frederick I

Frederick I (1123–90)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
112 words

... I ( Barbarossa Frederick I ) ( 1123–90 ) Holy Roman Emperor ( 1155–90 ), King of Germany ( 1152–90 ); successor to Conrad III . He was crowned emperor by Adrian IV . In 1156 Frederick restored Bavaria to Henry the Lion . In 1158 , he captured Milan and declared himself king of the Lombards. Frederick set up an antipope to Alexander III , who excommunicated him and formed the Lombard League . In 1176 , Frederick was defeated at Legnano by the League and was forced to recognize Alexander as pope and make peace ( 1183 ). In 1180 , he...

Frederick I

Frederick I (1123–90)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
56 words

... I (or Frederick Barbarossa , ‘Redbeard’) ( c . 1123–90 ) King of Germany and Holy Roman emperor ( 1152–90 ). He made a sustained attempt to subdue Italy and the papacy, but was eventually defeated at the Battle of Legnano in 1176 . He was drowned in Asia Minor while on his way to the Third Crusade....

Frederick I

Frederick I (1657–1713)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
100 words

... I ( 1657–1713 ) Elector of Brandenburg from 1688 , King of Prussia ( 1701–13 ). He lacked the ability of his father, Frederick William , the Great Elector, and dissipated funds in display and extravagance. In 1700 he supported the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I in the War of the Spanish Succession and with his approval was able to proclaim himself king, taking his title from his territory of East Prussia . In 1713 he acquired Upper Gelders. With his second wife Sophia Charlotte he developed Berlin and established the Academy of Science and...

Frederick I

Frederick I (c.1122–90)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
188 words

... I ( Barbarossa ) ( c. 1122–90 ), German King and Emperor . Elected King by the German princes in 1152 , he secured peace in Germany partly by allowing his cousin, Henry the Lion , a virtually free hand in the north-east. In Italy he was constrained by the treaty of Constance which he concluded with Eugenius III in 1153 and renewed with Hadrian IV in 1155 ; after his coronation as Emperor in 1155 tension between Frederick and Hadrian increased. When, at the Papal election of 1159 two Popes emerged, Frederick in 1160 recognized the...

Frederick I

Frederick I (1122–90)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
794 words

...Frederick I ( Barbarossa ) ( c . 1122–90 ), German King and Emperor. On the death of his uncle, Conrad III , in 1152 , the German princes elected Frederick of Swabia King, partly because he was on his mother's side a Guelph, as well as being a Hohenstaufen on his father's. He secured peace in the German kingdom by the gradual introduction of a new system of quasi-regal duchies which replaced the old tribal units, and by allowing his Guelph cousin, Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, a virtually free hand in the north-east. In Italy,...

Frederick William I

Frederick William I (1688–1740)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
61 words

... William I ( 1688–1740 ) King of Prussia ( 1713–40 ). Succeeding his father, Frederick I, he strengthened the army and economy and centralized the government, laying the basis for the rise of Prussia as a great power. He treated his son, the future Frederick II (the Great) , with brutality, but bequeathed him a full treasury and the finest army in...

Frederick William I

Frederick William I (1688–1740)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
65 words

... William I ( 1688–1740 ) King of Prussia ( 1713–40 ). He was the son of Frederick I and was known as ‘the royal drill-sergeant’: he was a strict Calvinist, hardworking, violent tempered, and notorious for his ill-treatment of his son, Frederick II . He left a model administration, a large revenue, and an efficient and well-disciplined army. He acquired Stettin in 1720...

Frederick I Barbarossa

Frederick I Barbarossa (1152–90)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
270 words

... I Barbarossa (It., lit. “Red-Beard”), king of Germany ( 1152–90 ) and Western emperor (crowned Rome 18 June 1155 ); born ca. 1125 , died near Seleukeia in Isauria 10 June 1190 . When he succeeded Conrad III , Frederick (Φρεδερίχος) considered marrying a Byz. princess. He deemed the invasion of southern Italy ( 1155–57 ) by Manuel I a threat to his own claims there. When Manuel allied himself with William I of Sicily ( 1158 ), Frederick became his major Western opponent. Against Byz. pressure Frederick sought to maintain German ascendancy over...

Frederick I Barbarossa

Frederick I Barbarossa (1122–1190)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... I Barbarossa (c. 1122–1190 ), crowned German king in 1152 and Roman emperor in 1155 . Medieval and modern historians alike have often perceived this emperor as bellicose, if not ferocious—an incarnation of furor teutonicus (Teutonic fury). The Italian Renaissance writer Niccolò Machiavelli ( 1469–1527 ) even believed that Frederick could not bear life without waging war. Partly this perception takes up the image of a victorious and severe, but knightly, ruler spread by Frederick’s own propaganda, and partly it comes from the devastating impact...

‘Barbarossa’, Frederick I Hohenstauffen

‘Barbarossa’, Frederick I Hohenstauffen (c.1123–90)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Frederick I Hohenstauffen ( c. 1123–90 ). Duke of Swabia from 1147 , Frederick succeeded his uncle as Holy Roman Emperor in 1152 . Nicknamed ‘Barbarossa’ from his red beard, Frederick was perhaps the dominant figure of his age. He was a bold and skilful general, an accomplished speaker, good administrator, and natural leader, although his driving ambition sometimes manifested itself in cruelty. He spent most of his reign in conflict with refractory vassals in Germany, the rebellious cities of Lombardy, and the papacy. He could not...

Frederick I of Hohenstaufen

Frederick I of Hohenstaufen (1122–1190)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,474 words

... I of Hohenstaufen ( 1122–1190 ) Frederick of Hohenstaufen (called Barbarossa) came from the family of the dukes of Swabia , one of the most powerful families of the German aristocracy, which also had possessions in Alsace . His father Frederick the One-eyed , a close relative of the last Salian Emperor Henry V , held important positions in the latter's entourage, guarding the imperial insignia on the monarch's death. His uncle Conrad , emperor in 1138 , fought against the pretensions of the dukes of Bavaria , of the Welf family. He designated...

Frederick I of Denmark and Norway

Frederick I of Denmark and Norway (1471–1533)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
856 words

... I of Denmark and Norway ( 1471–1533 ), king of Denmark from 1523 to 1533 and of Norway from 1524 to 1533 . After his brother, King John , died in 1512 , John's son Christian II succeeded to the throne of Denmark and Norway. Since the relations between Frederick and Christian II had long been tense because of Christian's aggressive policy in the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, where Frederick sat as duke at Gottorp castle, it was logical for the nobles rebelling against Christian to initiate contact with Frederick. After Christian II had been...

Frederick I

Frederick I   Quick reference

Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
70 words

... I / 'frɛdrɪk / ( c. 1123–90 ) , king of Germany and Holy Roman emperor 1152–90; known as Frederick Barbarossa (‘Redbeard’). He made a sustained attempt to subdue Italy and the papacy, but was eventually defeated at the battle of Legnano in 1176 . Frederick I Frederick Frederick Barbarossa (c. 1123–90), king of Germany and Holy Roman emperor 1152–90; known as Frederick Barbarossa (‘Redbeard’) monarch Royalty Medieval...

Frederick I

Frederick I   Quick reference

New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
70 words

... I / ˌfred(ə)rik T͟Hə'fərst / ( c. 1123–90 ) , king of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor 1152–90; known as Frederick Barbarossa (“Redbeard”). He made a sustained effort to subdue Italy and the papacy, but was eventually defeated at the battle of Legnano in 1176 . (c. 1123–90), king of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor 1152–90; known as Frederick Barbarossa (“Redbeard”) monarch Royalty Medieval History Frederick I Frederick...

Frederick I

Frederick I   Reference library

The Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
44 words

... I (known as ‘Frederick Barbarossa’ = ‘Redbeard’) ( c. 1123 – 90 ) , king of Germany and Holy Roman emperor 1152 – 90 . He made a sustained attempt to subdue Italy and the papacy, but was eventually defeated at the Battle of Legnano in 1176 . Encycl...

Frederick I

Frederick I   Reference library

The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
59 words

... I / 'fredrɪk / (known as Frederick Barbarossa = ‘Redbeard’) (? 1123–90 ), king of Germany and Holy Roman emperor 1152–90 . He made a sustained attempt to subdue Italy and the papacy, but was eventually defeated at the battle of Legnano in 1176 . He was drowned in Asia Minor while on his way to the Third Crusade...

Frederick William I

Frederick William I   Reference library

The Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
23 words

... William I ( 1688 – 1740 ) , king of Prussia 1713 – 40 , whose reign was notable for the strengthening of the Prussian army . Encycl...

Frederick I

Frederick I  

(1471–1533),King of Denmark and Norway, was the second son of King Christian I, who had been succeeded by his sons John and Christian II. In 1522 Frederick led a ...
Frederick I

Frederick I  

(c. 1123–90)King of Germany and Holy Roman emperor (1152–90). He made a sustained attempt to subdue Italy and the papacy, but was eventually defeated at the Battle of Legnano in 1176. He was drowned ...

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