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Frankfurt School

A school of philosophy of the 1920s (associated with the Institute for Social Research at Frankfurt in western Germany) whose adherents were involved in a reappraisal of Marxism, ...

Frankfurt School

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A Dictionary of Journalism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
65 words

...Frankfurt School An influential group of 20th-century scholars and intellectuals associated with the Frankfurt Institute for Social Research in Germany, founded in 1922–3 . The scholars (who mostly moved to the USA during the Nazi years) sought to explain and counter the ways in which they believed that ruling class ideology was transmitted via the mass media. See also critical theory ; hegemony ; Marxism ; media effects...

Frankfurt school

Frankfurt school n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... school n. A movement involving political philosophy and psychology founded at the Institute for Social Research at the University of Frankfurt in Germany, closed by the Nazis in 1933 , and re-established in 1934 at Columbia University in New York. Its leading figures included Max Horkheimer ( 1895–1973 ), Theodor W(iesengrund) Adorno ( 1903–69 ), and Herbert Marcuse ( 1898–1979 ), who were united by a belief in the possibility and desirability of a Marxist critical theory and a rejection of positivism ( 1 , 2 )...

Frankfurt School

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The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... School A group of neo-Marxist social theorists and philosophers associated with the Institut für Sozialforschung (Institute for Social Research) which was established at Frankfurt University in 1923 , driven into exile in 1933 , with a base at Columbia University, New York, from 1936 , and returned to Frankfurt in 1950 . The group espoused a non-dogmatic version of Marxism that it called Critical Theory , incorporating various influences from modern traditions of philosophy, sociology, and psychology. Early members of the group included Max...

Frankfurt School

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Ivan Oliver

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
171 words

... School The headquarters of critical theory , founded at Frankfurt University in 1923 , in exile in the United States from 1935 to 1953 , and revitalized in Frankfurt under Jürgen Habermas, who taught there during the 1960s and from 1982 . A number of broad themes can be identified. One is that Marxism and psychoanalysis combine in critical analysis ( see also Adorno ; authoritarian personality ). In Habermas’s work psychoanalysis, which seeks freedom from control by repressed forces, is a model for emancipation. His focus on language has produced...

Frankfurt School

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A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... School The collective name for the group of scholars and the body of work associated directly and indirectly with the Institut für Sozialforschung (Institute for Social Research), an independent research centre affiliated with Frankfurt University. In 1937 , Max Horkheimer defined the Institute’s approach to social and cultural analysis as critical theory , a label that has become virtually synonymous with the Frankfurt School. Today, for many people, particularly in Anglo-American Cultural Studies , the Frankfurt School means a dour, elitist...

Frankfurt school

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A Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
318 words

... school The critical Marxist school emerging in Frankfurt in the 1920s and 1930s, and centred upon the Institute for Social Research, founded in 1923 . Its principal philosophical members were Max Horkheimer (director, 1931–58 ), Adorno , Marcuse and Benjamin . Its leading later representative is Habermas . Their approach is sometimes known as critical theory . Its aim was to provide a version of Marxism uncontaminated by positivism and materialism , and giving due role to the influence of the superstructure, or the culture and self-image...

Frankfurt School

Frankfurt School   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,394 words

... Eike Gebhardt , eds. The Essential Frankfurt School Reader . New York, 1982. A useful introduction to some shorter but characteristic writings of central Frankfurt School figures, organized by topics, with insightful introductory essays by the editors to each topic. Bernstein, Jay . The Frankfurt School: Critical Assessments . London, 1989. Geuss, Raymond . The Idea of a Critical Theory: Habermas and the Frankfurt School . Cambridge, 1981. Jay, Martin . The Dialectical Imagination: A History of the Frankfurt School and the Institute of Social Research,...

Frankfurt school

Frankfurt school  

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference

... school A group of German social theorists who were members of the Institute of Social Research, founded in 1923 in Frankfurt, Germany. The name came to designate the more general set of concerns with totalitarianism , capitalism , and mass culture that the major Frankfurt theorists shared—an orientation they often described as critical theory . In 1930 , Max Horkheimer became the director and driving force of the institute. At various times in this early period, it counted among its members and associates Theodor Adorno , Herbert Marcuse ,...

Frankfurt school

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A Dictionary of Media and Communication (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Media studies
Length:
365 words

... school Neo-Marxist social theorists associated with the Frankfurt Institute for Social Research (1922–69), which developed what they called a ‘ critical theory of society’ (in which ‘critical theory’ was a coded reference to Marxism ). Leading figures associated with this school included Adorno, Fromm, Horkheimer, and Marcuse. Benjamin was on the fringe, and Habermas is of the second generation. They represented a broad range of disciplines within social science, sharing an antagonism to positivism and the notion that any research could be value...

Frankfurt School

Frankfurt School   Reference library

M. J. Inwood

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
556 words

... School . A German philosophical and sociological movement associated with the Institute for Social Research founded within Frankfurt University in 1923 . One of its founders, and in 1930 its director, was Max Horkheimer ( 1895–1973 ). In the 1930s he expounded the ‘ critical theory ’ of the school in its journal, Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung ( Critical Theory: Selected Essays , ( 1968 ; tr. New York, 1972 ). Only a radical change in theory and practice can cure the ills of modern society, especially unbridled technology. Every one-sided...

Frankfurt School

Frankfurt School   Reference library

R. Kaufman

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
3,585 words

... School . The unofficial, popular name for the Institut für Sozialforschung (Institute for Social Research), founded in 1923 and affiliated, except for its exile during the National Socialist regime and immediately thereafter, with the University of Frankfurt in Germany. The institute launched its work with the goals of innovating the methodologies and analytical possibilities for empirical social research; its work has focused on those (esp. the working class) who under duress confront the complexities of mod., industrial-capitalist society....

Critical Theory: IR's Engagement with the Frankfurt School and Marxism

Critical Theory: IR's Engagement with the Frankfurt School and Marxism   Reference library

Faruk Yalvaç

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,945 words

...of the Frankfurt School held by IR scholars, which are elaborated in the next section. Origins of Critical Theory: The Frankfurt School CT is generally traced back to the Frankfurt School whose origins lay in the establishment of the Institut für Sozialforschung (Institute for Social Research) at the University of Frankfurt in 1923 ( Jay 1973 ; Held 1980 ; Alway 1995 ). The members of the school were exiled to the United States during the Nazi period and World War II but reestablished themselves in Germany in 1950 . The Frankfurt School was part...

Frankfurt School

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The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

... School a school of philosophy of the 1920s (associated with the Institute for Social Research at Frankfurt in western Germany) whose adherents were involved in a reappraisal of Marxism, particularly in terms of the cultural and aesthetic dimension of modern industrial society. Principal figures include Theodor Adorno , Max Horkheimer , and Herbert Marcuse...

Frankfurt School

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New Oxford American Dictionary (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
59 words
Frankfurt School

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Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
59 words
Frankfurt School

Frankfurt School   Reference library

Australian Oxford Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
58 words
Frankfurt School

Frankfurt School   Reference library

The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary

Reference type:
English Dictionary
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
English Dictionaries and Thesauri
Length:
49 words
Frankfurt School

Frankfurt School  

A school of philosophy of the 1920s (associated with the Institute for Social Research at Frankfurt in western Germany) whose adherents were involved in a reappraisal of Marxism, particularly in ...
31 The History of the Book in Hungary

31 The History of the Book in Hungary   Reference library

Bridget Guzner

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,982 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...conference of publishers in 1913 . In 1998 , the Hungarian Publishers’ and Booksellers’ Association (MKKE) joined the prestigious European Publishers’ Federation and the European Booksellers’ Federation, and in 1999 the country was chosen as guest of honour at the *Frankfurt Book Fair , considerably enhancing its standing on the European cultural scene. In the 2000s , Hungarian publishing has been characterized by trends common throughout Europe: growth in sales volume; better quality production; greater variety of titles; expansion of bookshop...

48 The History of the Book in America

48 The History of the Book in America   Reference library

Scott E. Casper and Joan Shelley Rubin

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
13,059 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...diverse populations. The number of public schools grew rapidly in New England and western states (such as Ohio) populated by New England emigrants. Few southern states or localities established public schooling before the Civil War, both because wealthy planters resisted paying to educate poorer white farmers’ children and because populations were widely dispersed. In 1840 , the first time the US census enumerated school attendance, 38.4 per cent of white children aged 5–19 went to public or private school for some portion of the year; by 1860 ,...

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