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French

French leave absence from work or duty without permission, said to derive from the French custom of leaving a dinner or ball without saying goodbye to the host or hostess. The phrase was ...

Medieval Navies

Medieval Navies   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
27,594 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the French. First, at Damme near Bruges in 1213 , a French fleet was caught unprepared in harbor and largely destroyed. Second, in 1217 , off Dover, a fleet bringing reinforcements to French forces in England was engaged at sea; many French ships were boarded and taken, and the fleet’s commander was killed. From this time on, a much clearer picture can be gained of the use of ships by the crown, perhaps because many more administrative documents survive. Henry III (r. 1216–1272 ) used vessels largely from Bayonne, in southwestern France , part of...

Wars, Maritime

Wars, Maritime   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
42,659 words
Illustration(s):
5

...a decade later French policy underwent a similar change. France’s quieter posture on the continent gave her a more assured territorial security, and other continental powers became more worried about each other than France . Some French statesmen were already thinking that France’s future lay upon the oceans when at the end of the Seven Years’ War ( 1756–1763 ) it became evident that her expensive military operations in Europe were not able to prevent Britain from dominating that sphere. The issue was serious, for by this time the French were deriving...

Crusades

Crusades   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
48,851 words
Illustration(s):
8

...Terracina on the Italian mainland, although the French subsequently balked at a proposed attack on Pisan Piombino. The French participants were hailed as heroes on their return, and their deed passed into chivalric literature. To modern eyes, the whole enterprise appears to have been a fiasco, but it was then hailed as a success and increased enthusiasm for the crusade, especially in France. The projected Anglo-French treaty never materialized, but a substantial crusading force was raised. It was mostly French, with a few English, Germans, and others. The...

France

France   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
19,911 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Charles Gellman , M.D., 103, Avenue Charles de Gaulle, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 92200 France; gellman@psygestalt.org. Pierre Dalens , M.D., 25, Avenue de l'Entre deux Mers 33370 Fargues, Saint Hilaire, (Près Bordeaux), France; pierre.dalens@wanadoo.fr. Robert Gellman , M.D., 3, rue Copernic, Paris 75116, France. Claire Gellman , c.gellmanbarroux@free.fr. France Paramelle, France. Paramelle@wanadoo.fr. Laurent Malterre , 74, Rue des Gravilliers, 75003 Paris, France; laurentmalterre@hotmail.com. Translator: Genevieve Parent , M.A.,...

Aegean Prehistoric Cultures

Aegean Prehistoric Cultures   Reference library

Neil Asher Silberman, Cyprian Broodbank, Alan Peatfield, Louise Hitchcock, James C. Wright, Kim S. Shelton, Elizabeth B. French, and Kim S. Shelton

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
8,827 words

...not clear, however, and the site hierarchy of the region and of Late Bronze Age Greece as a whole is complex. [ See also Knossos ; Schliemann, Heinrich ; Troy . ] French, Elizabeth . Mycenae: Agamemnon’s Capital , 2002. Iakovidis, Spyros . Anaskafes Mykenon. I. E Boreiodytike Synoikia . [Excavation of Mycenae. I. The Northwest Neighborhood], 2006. Iakovidis, Spyros , and Elizabeth French . The Archaeological Atlas of Mycenae , 2003. Mylonas, George . O Tafikos Kyklos B ton Mykenon . [Grave Circle B of Mycenae], 1972–1973. Shelton, Kim . “The...

Roman Empire

Roman Empire   Reference library

Colin M. Wells, R. J. A. Wilson, David H. French, A. Trevor Hodge, Stephen L. Dyson, and David F. Graf

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
12,461 words

...the eighteenth century. These cities preserve houses and public buildings as in a time capsule, while Ostia, the port of Rome, silted up, gradually abandoned and covered with sand, tells us what a larger commercial center was like. The small towns of North Africa excavated by the French in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, like Sabratha and Lepcis Magna (Libya), are a treasury of Roman architecture and everyday life. In Europe, the Romans picked their sites so well that many Roman towns lie beneath modern cities, and it took Second World War bombing...

Mendès‐France, Pierre

Mendès‐France, Pierre (1907–82)   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
77 words

...France, Pierre ( 1907–82 ). The last important leader of the once powerful French Radical Party . After participating in the Resistance, he became a député in 1946 and prime minister in 1954 , when he succeeded in extricating France from the war in Indo‐China . His austere policies attracted much hostility, and he was defeated in 1955 and never returned to power, but his vision and commitment have remained a source of inspiration to many on the Left. [ Peter France...

Russia and France

Russia and France   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
405 words

...manuscripts were preserved. Although the influence of German and English literature partly eclipsed French in the 19th c., French remained a normal language of communication for the upper classes. Much correspondence in French survives, as well as one major work of polemic, P. Y. Chaadayev's Lettres philosophiques ( 1829 ). Many Russian writers spent long periods in France; Turgenev, for instance, was a good friend of Flaubert . At the same time, a few French writers, notably Mérimée , Custine , and Dumas père , displayed an interest in Russia and...

Jeunes‐France, Les

Jeunes‐France, Les   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
33 words

...France, Les . Name given c. 1830 to a group of Romantic writers and artists, including Nerval , Borel , and Gautier , whose extreme views or unusual behaviour shocked public opinion, e.g. in the battle of Hernani...

Shakespeare in France

Shakespeare in France   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
329 words

...by French standards—pearls in a dunghill. Diderot described him grandly as a ‘colosse gothique’. The first translations were P.-A. de la Place's prose versions in his Théâtre anglais ( 1745–9 ). These were followed by the complete prose rendering of Le Tourneur ( 1776–82 ). Ducis , who knew no English, used both of these for his watered‐down verse adaptations. But Shakespeare had little impact on French dramatic practice in the 18th c. It was the Romantic movement which established him in the French poetic Pantheon [ see Drama in France Since...

Institut de France

Institut de France (1806)   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
114 words

...de France (until 1806 , Institut National). Learned body founded in 1795 , incorporating many members of the former royal academies , grouped in three ‘classes’ (Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Moral and Political Sciences, Literature and Fine Art). In 1816 it was reorganized: the Académie Française , Académie des Sciences , Académie des Inscriptions , and Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture (now Académie des Beaux‐Arts) resumed their separate identities under the umbrella of the Institut; in 1832 a fifth class was added, the...

Île de France, L'

Île de France, L'   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
17 words

...de France, L' . Former name for Mauritius . Within France, the Île‐de‐France is the region surrounding...

Tour de France, Le

Tour de France, Le   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
82 words

...de France, Le . Before being accepted as masters by many guilds of craftsmen, apprentices had to complete a ‘tour de France’ within the system of compagnonnage which developed from the 15th c. as an organization for solidarity among artisans ( see Agricol Perdiguier , Mémoires d'un compagnon , 1853 ). Today the Tour de France is above all an annual three‐week cycle race, created in 1903 . This high point of the French sporting calendar is analysed as a modern epic in Barthes 's Mythologies . [ Peter France...

Novel in France, The

Novel in France, The   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,919 words

...in France, The [for other francophone countries see relevant entries] 1. Romance and Novel before 1700 French has only one term, roman , for the English ‘romance’ and ‘novel’. The French novel both continues the medieval romance and defines itself against it. In the 16th c., romance is best represented by Amadis de Gaule , the butt of Cervantes's mockery in Don Quixote , the founding text of the modern novel. Rabelais 's unclassifiable work can be seen both as an ‘anti‐ roman ’ in its parody of epic and romance, and (with Bakhtin) as a novel in its...

France

France   Quick reference

World Maps

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...France Physical map Political map Paris Central Paris Central Paris...

France

France   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
657 words

...alongside the hard-pressed French army in French uniforms at several key battles, including the Battle of Verdun. The French welcomed them as liberators and challenged the American military's efforts to enforce Jim Crow segregation on French soil. The French were also struck by something else that black soldiers brought with them to France: American jazz music. Jazz quickly became the hip new thing in France, particularly jazz played by black performers, who were thought to be more authentic than white American or French musicians. African American...

France

France   Quick reference

World Flags

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... The colours of the French tricolore originated during the French Revolution of 1789. The red and blue originate from the coat of arms of Paris, while the white represents the Bourbon royal family. It became the symbol of the revolution. The present design was adopted in...

France

France   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
396 words

...Canada, and Ribaut and Villegaignon established short-lived colonies in Florida and Brazil. See the separate articles on French architecture ; French art ; French gardens ; French language and orthography ; French law ; French music . R. J. Knecht , The Rise and Fall of Renaissance France, 1483–1610 ...

France

France   Reference library

Phil Markowski

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
916 words
Illustration(s):
1

...profile. The region most associated with French brewing tradition is Nord-Pas de Calais. It was here that the modern resurgence of French specialty brewing began in the 1970s and 1980s. Although the majority of the producers here are small by any standard, Nord-Pas de Calais is home to the most breweries and produces a more diverse array of specialty brews than any other French department. Perhaps most telling, Nord-Pas de Calais can claim the highest per capita beer consumption in the nation. Historically, French people have preferred low-alcohol beers with...

France

France   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...and Seine Rivers ( see Île-de-france ). It was only after Hugh Capet ( c . 938–96 ) came to the throne in 987 as the first Capetian king that he began to promote the name France, rarely used before except as in Île-de-France, to describe his larger kingdom. Over a period of some nine centuries France acquired more and more territory, and it was only during the middle of the 18th century that French borders began to resemble what they are today; they took their final shape in 1919 when Alsace-Lorraine was ceded back to France from Germany. The Franks gave...

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