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François Bernier

Subject: Literature

(1625–88), French author, physician, and traveller whose vivid descriptions of what he saw in India and Kashmir in the 17th century contain precious early accounts of gardens. ...

Bernier, François

Bernier, François (1620–88)   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
71 words

..., François ( 1620–88 ). French physician and traveller . Author of an Abrégé de la philosophie de Gassendi , he frequented libertin circles and the salon of Madame de la Sablière . A prolonged stay in India, where he was physician to Aureng Zebe, produced several travel books ( Voyages , 1699 ), combining recent history with interesting descriptions of cities, customs, commerce, and religion; though generally open‐minded, Bernier is contemptuous of Hindu ‘superstition’. [ Peter France...

Bernier, François

Bernier, François (1625–88)   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

..., François ( 1625–88 ), French author, physician, and traveller whose vivid descriptions of what he saw in India and Kashmir in the 17th century contain precious early accounts of gardens. They were published in 1699 as Voyages contenant la description des états du Grand Mogol (Travels Containing a Description of the Estates of the Great Moghul). He saw the notable gardens of Kashmir— Achabal , Shalamar Bagh , and Vernag—and the Red Fort and Taj Mahal in India. He saw Kashmir as ‘a fertile and highly cultivated garden … meadows and vineyards,...

François Bernier

François Bernier  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1625–88), French author, physician, and traveller whose vivid descriptions of what he saw in India and Kashmir in the 17th century contain precious early accounts of gardens.They were published ...
Achabal

Achabal  

Anantnag (Islamabad), Kashmir, lies to the south-east of Srinagar, where the Vale of Kashmir dies out against the mountains. The site is that of an ancient spring, Akshavala, which pours ...
Marguerite Hessein de La Sablière

Marguerite Hessein de La Sablière  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(c. 1636–1693).After she had obtained a legal separation from her inconstant husband, this well‐educated daughter of a wealthy Protestant family created a famous salon. There, philosophical and ...
Pierre Gassendi

Pierre Gassendi  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
(1592–1655)French philosopher and mathematician. Born in Provence and educated as a priest, Gassendi taught at Digne and at Aix before being appointed to the chair of mathematics at the Royal College ...
Aurangzeb

Aurangzeb  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
(1618–1707),Mogul emperor of Hindustan 1658–1707, who increased the Mogul empire to its greatest extent, and who assumed the title Alamgir (‘Conqueror of the World’). His reign was a period of great ...
travel Writing

travel Writing  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
Early examples of travel writing widely popular in Britain included the fabulous 14th‐cent. travel book ascribed to Sir John Mandeville, and the supposedly factual accounts of Marco Polo's journey to ...
Aurangzīb

Aurangzīb (1618–1707)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...capital at Aurungabad, and two gardens here are linked with his name, the Mausoleum of Rābi ᾽a-ud-Daurāni, and the Pan Chakki watermill. From his reign, however, date some of the most complete accounts both of the Mughal gardens and of Kashmir, by European writers such as François Bernier and Jean-Baptiste Tavernier . Together with a decline in the arts, Aurangzīb's policies of repression led to tensions within his empire, which contributed to its decline under his successors and its eventual disappearance under British rule. Sheila...

Achabal

Achabal   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...then running nearly level with the ground. Great plane trees surround the heart of the garden, and solid stone platforms ( chabutras ) are set at intervals among them. To one side is a hummum or bath. The existing pavilions are of later date, set on the old Mughal bases. François Bernier records that the garden was once full of fruit trees: ‘Apples, Pears, Prunes, Apricocks and Cherries’. The design ( c .1620 ) is attributed primarily to the Empress Nūr Jahān, wife of Jahāngīr . The garden is currently in a good state of repair and the natural abundance of...

Bande dessinée (BD)

Bande dessinée (BD)   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
579 words

...1959 ); Gotlib , Rubrique‐à‐Brac ( 1968 ); Mandryka , Le Concombre masqué ( 1965 ); Gir , Blueberry ( 1963 , with Charlier ); Greg , Achille Talon ( 1963 )—and in Hara‐Kiri ( 1960 , then Hara‐Kiri Hebdo , 1969 , and Charlie‐Hebdo , 1970 ), founded by Georges Bernier and Cavanna . Ironically the BD became a social fad, just when its function was fifth column, and drugs, counter‐cultures, civil rights, and sexual liberation its preoccupations. The appearance of Charlie mensuel ( 1969 ), L'Écho des savanes ( 1972 ), Métal hurlant (...

Roshanara begam

Roshanara begam (1617–1671)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
634 words

...lies within an exquisite marble pavilion standing in the middle of a water tank and approached by causeways. Contrasting with the ornamental exterior, the cenotaph is a simple block, open to the sky, suggesting surrender to God. Travelers from Europe, such as the Frenchman François Bernier ( 1625–1688 ) or the Italian Niccolao Manucci ( 1639–1717 ), have tended to compare the two sisters Jahanara and Roshanara, invariably referring to the extraordinary beauty of the former, while describing the latter as being plain in looks but having some vivacity. It is...

Epicurianism

Epicurianism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,176 words

...role in the scientific movement of the second half of the seventeenth century and in the development of mechanistic philosophy, to a large extent through the writings of the French priest and philosopher Pierre Gassendi and his followers, above all his popularizer, François Bernier . It was largely through Gassendi and his contacts with the circle around the Cavendish family, exiled in France during the English Civil War, that Epicurianism was introduced to England in a Christianized and acceptable form, in particular by the king's physician, Walter...

Race

Race   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,491 words

... Journal des Sçavans ( 1684 ) by the physician François Bernier . Speaking on the basis of his travel experiences he stated “that there are mostly four or five species or races of men, which differ so much from one another that this difference can serve as a fair basis for a new division of the earth.” Bernier claimed that a combination of physical features and skin color characterized each race. In order to be so considered, these features could not be “accidental,” but “a part of [its] essence.” Bernier's races differed somewhat from modern categories,...

Asia

Asia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
4,489 words

...reports from travelers and missionaries, and in the work of scholars. Jean de Thévenot published his Récit d'un voyage fait au Levant in 1665 ; Jean Chardin , his Voyages en Perse et autres lieux de l'Asie in 1686 ; and François Bernier , his Histoire de la dernière révolution des états du grand mogol in 1670–1671 . Bernier's work, in particular, became highly influential. Although many educated readers and many visitors to regions that had flourished in biblical times were concerned primarily with how these travels could illuminate the Bible or the...

Travel Writing

Travel Writing   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,088 words

...in other lands, including China and India; these are some of the most informative works of their kind. Other classic accounts of travels in Africa and Asia were written by Belon du Mans , Villamont , Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq ( Turkish Letters , written in Latin, 1555–62 ), Bernier , Chardin , Tavernier , and Thévenot . These travellers wrote with a view to publication; others, like Montaigne and, in the 18th c., Montesquieu , left travel diaries which were only published (posthumously) because of their authors' celebrity. All these writers offered...

Race and Racism

Race and Racism   Reference library

Michael ADAS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History
Length:
3,707 words

...European travelers did not necessarily admire light-skinned peoples more than “tawny” or “black” ones. In fact, numerous explorers explicitly commented on the beauty or well-proportioned bodies of both males and females of peoples described as dark-skinned. For example, François Bernier , one of the most famous French travelers of the late seventeenth century, was one of the first writers to attempt to classify the different types of humans he had encountered in his peregrinations. He had, however, very little to say about the basic human types that he...

India

India   Reference library

Colleen Taylor Sen

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
2,853 words

...made from chhana ; khoa is used mainly as a secondary ingredient. Chhana ’s popularity in Bengal may have come from the Portuguese who lived in the region in the seventeenth century and specialized in the preparation of sweetmeats, breads, and cheese. The French traveler François Bernier wrote in 1659 : “Bengal is celebrated for its sweetmeats, especially in places inhabited by the Portuguese, who are skilful in the art of preparing them and with whom they are an article of considerable trade.” The extensive use of chhana by professional sweet makers...

Race

Race   Reference library

David Bindman

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,716 words
Illustration(s):
1

...always been recognized, but prior to the eighteenth century the word “race” was not generally applied to large groups of human beings united by common biological or cultural traits. Before then (and sometimes afterward), race tended to refer to a family or a dynasty. It was François Bernier ( 1625–1688 ), who first proposed the division of the world into four “espèces ou races” in 1684 in Nouvelle division de la terre par les différentes espèces ou races qui l’habitent , but modern racial categories really go back to the great Swedish biologist Carl...

Orientalism

Orientalism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
5,913 words

...addition to translations, travel narratives and letters from the Orient introduced new expectations and stereotypes. John Chardin 's embassy to Persia and India yielded Travels in Persia 1673–1677 ( 1686 , 1720 ), very popular with both French and English readers, and François Bernier 's account of his travels through the Mugal Empire from 1656 to 1668 also found an eager audience. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's Turkish Embassy Letters ( 1763 ) were originally composed while her husband was ambassador to the Sublime Porte in 1716–1718 . Though not...

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