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Form 20-F

In the USA, the form required by the Securities and Exchange Commission for the filing of annual results by non-US companies.

Gabon

Gabon   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
588 words

...the 1840s and 1880s, Gabon achieved national independence on 13 August 1960 . Its constitutions of 21 February 1961 and 26 March 1991 established a presidential form of government within a democratic republic. The attempts of the first president, Léon Mba ( 1902–1967 ), to gain control of the National Assembly through the establishment of a single political party provoked the coup of 17– 20 February 1964 by young military officers. French military intervention restored Mba to power and eliminated his opponents from public life. Intervention allowed Mba...

Historical Approaches to African Politics

Historical Approaches to African Politics   Reference library

Steven Pierce

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,247 words

...recently different forms of political community seemed both possible and desirable. They have also helped us to understand that the founders of today’s countries were more diverse than many founding myths have suggested. Historians are hardly the only scholars who have examined the African past. In the end, history’s distinctive disciplinary contribution stems from how it imagines knowledge of the past can inform the present. Further Reading Cohen, D. W. (1994). The combing of history . Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Cooper, F. (2014). Africa in...

State Formation and Conflict in Africa

State Formation and Conflict in Africa   Reference library

Didier Péclard

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,480 words

..., 20 (2), 4–10. Balthasar, D. (2017). Peace-building as state-building? Rethinking liberal interventionism in contexts of emerging states . Conflict, Security & Development , 17 (6), 473–491. Balthasar, D. (2018). On the (in)compatibility of peace-building and state-making: Evidence from Somaliland . The Journal of Development Studies . 55 (4), 457–472. Bates, R. H. (2008). When things fell apart: State failure in late-century Africa (Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Bayart, J.-F. (2000)....

Reconsidering African Elections

Reconsidering African Elections   Reference library

Carolien van Ham and Staffan Lindberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,592 words
Illustration(s):
5

...Total Number of Elections Held (N) Countries (N) Countries (%) Longest Sequence of Consecutive Elections (N) Countries (N) Countries (%) 0 3 6.1 0 3 6.1 2 0 0.0 2 2 4.1 3 1 2.0 3 4 8.2 4 3 6.1 4 1 2.0 5 3 6.1 5 8 16.3 6 4 8.2 6 6 12.2 7 4 8.2 7 4 8.2 8 3 6.1 8 3 6.1 9 2 4.1 9 1 2.0 10 11 22.4 10 12 24.5 11 8 16.3 11 4 8.2 12 0 0.0 12 1 2.0 13 3 6.1 14 1 2.0 15 1 2.0 16 1 2.0 17 1 2.0 Total 49 100.0 Total 49 100.0 However, if we take into account whether elections had consequences, that is, whether elections were subsequently annulled, or followed by a coup...

Communication Technology and African Politics

Communication Technology and African Politics   Reference library

Sharath Srinivasan and Stephanie Diepeveen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
13,729 words

...colonial officials relied heavily on travelers’ accounts and oral testimony to learn about extant forms of rule ( Berry, 1992 ). Amid conflicting stories, African subjects could take advantage of interest in tradition to give information that might favor them. Practical anthropology also shaped how British colonialists produced information on their subjects ( Afigbo, 1975 ). Some attempts were made to employ government anthropologists in Nigeria in the early 20th century , but in the end Governor Lord Lugard preferred the work to be done by existing colonial...

Colonial Rule and Its Political Legacies in Africa

Colonial Rule and Its Political Legacies in Africa   Reference library

Amanda Lea Robinson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,804 words
Illustration(s):
1

...myth of uneconomic imperialism: The Portuguese in Angola, 1836–1926. Journal of Southern African Studies , 5 (2), 165—180. Cooper, F. (1997). Review of Mamdani, M. (1996). Citizen and subject: Contemporary Africa and the legacy of late colonialism . International Labor and Working Class History , 52 , 156–160. Crowder, M. (1964). Indirect rule: French and British style. Africa , 34 (3), 197–205. De Juan, A. , Krautwald, F. , & Pierskalla, J. H. (2017). Constructing the state: Macros strategies, micro incentives, and the creation of police forces in...

Land-Related Conflict and Electoral Politics in Africa

Land-Related Conflict and Electoral Politics in Africa   Reference library

Catherine Boone

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,318 words

...mean that land tensions, if they exist, are likely to find expression as ethnic conflict in the electoral arena? Each of the study zones examined in Table 1 is indeed ethnically heterogeneous. From 20%–60% of the population of the subnational jurisdictions of interest in Kenya, Côte d’Ivoire, and DRC is composed of in-migrants. In Rwanda, about 20% of the national population was classified as non-Hutu in the 1980s. In Zimbabwe, politicized land conflict in the 2000s targeted the white minority. And perceptions of scarcity and ethnic heterogeneity are ...

The Politics of Pentecostalism in Africa

The Politics of Pentecostalism in Africa   Reference library

John F. McCauley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,261 words

...As Anderson ( 2004 ) describes, the Pentecostal movement that began in Los Angeles in 1906 made its way to Africa first in the form of the classical Pentecostal churches, such as the Church of Pentecost, the Apostolic Church, and the Assemblies of God; those churches were Western-originating missionary churches with emphasis on spirit baptisms and speaking in tongues. Also influenced by Pentecostalism in the first half of the 20th century but otherwise distinct from the established Pentecostal churches were the African Independent Churches (AICs). The...

The Politics of African Literature

The Politics of African Literature   Reference library

David Attwell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
4,936 words

...over seamlessly into Africa’s expressive cultures? On what terms do these forms become indigenized? What happens to oral forms and their reception when they are recorded and circulated in print? How might writers working in print-based traditions reconfigure their work to preserve the continuity with oral culture? If writers wish to draw on and re-deploy the mythic and value systems of indigenous knowledge, can this be done by transference into European languages and European-derived forms? There is another order of questions that is meta-discursive and has to...

Postcolonial Approaches to the Study of African Politics

Postcolonial Approaches to the Study of African Politics   Reference library

Grace Adeniyi Ogunyankin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,979 words

...in Africa. Postamble , 3 , 41–47. Fanon, F. (1963). The wretched of the earth . New York, NY: Grove Press. Fanon, F. (1967). Black skin white masks . New York, NY: Grove Press. Loomba, A. (1998). Colonialism–postcolonialism . New York, NY: Psychology Press. Mama, A. (2004). Demythologising gender in development: Feminist studies in African contexts . IDS Bulletin 35 (4), 121–124. Mama, A. (2011). What does it mean to do feminist research in African contexts? Feminist Review , 98 (S1), e4–e20. Mamdani, M. (2001). Beyond settler and...

Environmental Governance and the (Re-)Making of the African State

Environmental Governance and the (Re-)Making of the African State   Reference library

Maano Ramutsindela and Bram Büscher

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,254 words

...militarization of conservation is one example of such limitation. Imagining other ways of environmental governance therefore also entails imagining other state forms in Africa (and vice versa). New relations to global forces, institutional regimes, and forms of (capitalist) power will need to be fashioned in the process if more sustainable relations between people and nature are to form in the coming decades. References Adger, W. N. , & Jordan, A. (Eds.). (2009). Governing sustainability . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. African Union ....

Globalization and Regionalism in Africa

Globalization and Regionalism in Africa   Reference library

Pádraig Carmody

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,436 words

...Lee, 2014 ), representing a form of “globalization from below.” One academic estimates that up to 20% of sub-Saharan Africa’s phones pass through one housing complex in Hong Kong, called Chungking Mansions ( Shadbolt, 2009 ), many of which are retrofitted (fakes). Traders in the Great Lakes region or West Africa, through their activities, create often informal regional networks ( Lavergne, 1997 ; MacGaffey, 1991 ) and “micro-regions” ( Söderbaum & Taylor, 2008 ). There are also many forms of regionalized and globalized forms of associational life on the...

Sexual Violence

Sexual Violence   Reference library

Catharine A. MacKinnon and Chavi Keeney Nana

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,984 words

...men, forced impregnation, and sexual slavery for the purpose of eliminating Bosnian Muslims and Croats. Again presuming underreporting, the United Nations estimates that between 250,000 and 500,000 Rwandan, 20,000 to 50,000 Bosnian, 200,000 Bangladeshi, 15 percent of Liberian, and 8 percent of Sierra Leonean women were subjected to some form of sexual abuse in the armed conflicts in their areas, as were 70 percent of women in the Luwero District of Northern Uganda. Some reports estimate that there is not a woman in parts of Congo who has not been raped,...

BRIC Countries

BRIC Countries   Reference library

Oliver Stuenkel

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
4,540 words

..., Yochanan Shachmurove , and Manuchehr Shahrokhi . “A Future Global Economy To Be Built by BRICs.” Global Finance Journal 18, no. 2 (2007): 143–157. Cooper, Andrew F. , and John English . “Introduction: Reforming the International System from the Top: A Leaders’ 20 Summit.” In Reforming From the Top: A Leaders’ 20 Summit , edited by John English , Ramesh Thakur , and Andrew F. Cooper , pp. 1–24. (Tokyo, 2005). Cozendey, Carlos Márcio . “BRIC a BRICS em um mundo em transformação.” In O Brasil, os BRICS e a Agenda Internacional, edited by FUNAG...

The Capacity of Decentralization to Promote Democracy and Development in Africa

The Capacity of Decentralization to Promote Democracy and Development in Africa   Reference library

Amy R. Poteete

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,080 words

...Africa (30%) Moderate Algeria (29%) Morocco (27%) 10 countries 20%–29% Kenya (29%) Sudan (25%) (18.9%) Gambia (27%) Botswana (24%) Guinea Bissau (27%) Madagascar (20%) Togo (23%) Zimbabwe (20%) Low Cape Verde (17%) Tanzania (14%) 13 countries 10%–19% Burkina Faso (15%) Ghana (11%) (24.5%) Angola (14%) Burundi (10%) Cameroon (10%) CAR (10%) Chad (10%) Congo, Rep. (10%) DRC (10%) Liberia (10%) Libya (10%) Very low Mauritius (9%) Gambia (9%) Senegal (8%) 11 countries < 10% Rwanda (8%) Namibia (5%) (20.8%) Lesotho (5%) Tunisia (5%) Niger (5%) Côte d’Ivoire...

German Unification

German Unification   Reference library

David Calleo

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,532 words

...gave the opposition control of the upper house (Bundesrat). The chancellor precipitated an early general election in 2005 . All traditional parties lost ground, while the principal gainer was the newly formed die Linke, an amalgam of the East German leftist party (PDS) and the “Election Alternative–Labor and Social Justice” (WASG), a newly formed left-wing splinter group from the West German SPD. The SPD and die Linke refused to enter into government together, and the result was a grand coalition of CDU/CSU and SPD, with the CDU leader, Angela Merkel,...

The Great Lakes in Africa: Regional Politics and Dynamics

The Great Lakes in Africa: Regional Politics and Dynamics   Reference library

Aymar Nyenyezi Bisoka

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
12,497 words

...F. (1995b). Rwanda: trois jours qui ont fait basculer l’histoire . Brussels, Belgium: Institut Africain. Reyntjens, F. (2014). Gouverner après le génocide . Paris, France: Les Belles Lettres. Reyntjens, F. (2016). The struggle over term limits in Africa: A new look at the evidence. Journal of Democracy , 27 , 61–68. Reyntjens, F. (2017). Le génocide des Tutsi au Rwanda , PUF, collection Que sais-je. Reyntjens, F. (Ed.). (2018). Chronique politique de l’Afrique des Grands Lacs 2018 . Antwerp, Belgium: University Press Antwerp. Saito, F. ...

Piracy and Maritime Security in Africa

Piracy and Maritime Security in Africa   Reference library

Jatin Dua

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,217 words

...over the world’s oceans are broadly understood as having sounded the death knell for large-scale organized maritime piracy. By the early 20th century the pirate and maritime piracy were understood as relics of the past, and in 1924 legal scholar Edwin Dickinson asked in the pages of the Harvard Law Review , “Is the Crime of Piracy Obsolete?” The codification of a definition of maritime piracy in the early 20th century emerged in response to an immediate need for clarifying the definition of piracy and as part of a larger project of legal...

Political Parties and Regime Outcomes in Multiparty Africa

Political Parties and Regime Outcomes in Multiparty Africa   Reference library

Adrienne LeBas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,154 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Yes Yes Remains dominant Benin 2, 2, F 1991 Mobilizing one-party PRP 1975–1991 Yes No Dissolved 1992 Botswana 3, 2, F Independence Party-dominant BDP (in power 1966–) — — Remains dominant Burkina Faso 4, 3, PF 1991 Military rule OPD formed 1989, later CDP 1987–1991 Yes Yes Overthrown in 2014, remains opposition party Burundi 7, 6, NF 1993 3 Military one-party UPRONA 1966–1993 Yes No Remains opposition party Cameroon 6, 6, NF 1992 Personalized one-party RDPC/CNU 1966–1992 Yes Yes Remains dominant Cape Verde 1, 1, F 1991 Mobilizing one-party PAICV 1981...

Electoral Violence and Political Competition in Africa

Electoral Violence and Political Competition in Africa   Reference library

Liisa Laakso

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
6,727 words

...(pp. 15–38). Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace. Taylor, C. F. , Pevehouse, J. C. W. , & Straus, S. (2017). Perils of pluralism: Electoral violence and incumbency in sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Peace Research , 54 (3), 397–411. Vanhanen, T. (1997). Prospects of democracy: A study of 172 countries . London, UK: Routledge. V-Dem . (2018). Democracy for all? V-Dem annual democracy report 2018 . Gothenburg, Sweden: V-Dem Institute, University of Gothenburg. Wanyama, F. O. , & Elklit, J. (2018). Electoral violence during party primaries in...

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