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Form 20-F

In the USA, the form required by the Securities and Exchange Commission for the filing of annual results by non-US companies.

Form F1

Form F1  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A document that must be filed with the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) whenever a share issue is made available to the public.
Clark, William Clifford

Clark, William Clifford (1889–1952)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
495 words

...federal fiscal system work in the conditions of a modern welfare state. Bibliography ‘The Country Elevator in the Canadian West,’ Bulletin of the Departments of History and Political and Economic Science (1914–15), no. 20. ‘Should Maximum Prices be Fixed,’ Bulletin of the Departments of History and Political and Economic Science (1917–20), no. 27. ‘ The Business Cycle, ’ Queen's Quarterly (1921–2), vol. 24, pp. 60–83. ‘ The Flight from the Gold Standard, ’ Queen's Quarterly (1931), vol. 38, pp. 751–63. Further Reading Mackintosh, W. A. , ‘ William...

Douglas, Clifford Hugh

Douglas, Clifford Hugh (1879–1952)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,962 words

...Credit (1924). The Monopoly of Credit (1931). The Alberta Experiment (1937). Further Reading Hutchinson, F. , What Everybody Really Wants to Know About Money (Charlbury, 1998). Hutchinson, F. and Burkitt, B. , The Political Economy of Guild Socialism and Social Credit (1997). Hutchinson, F. and Burkitt, B. , ‘ The Contemporary Relevance of Clifford Hugh Douglas ’, The Political Quarterly (1999), vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 443–51. Hutchinson, F. , Mellor, M. and Olsen, W. , The Politics of Money: Towards Sustainability and Economic Democracy ...

Guggenheim Family

Guggenheim Family   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
798 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Davis, J. H. The Guggenheims . New York, 1988. Glaser-Schmidt, Elisabeth . The Guggenheims and the Coming of the Great Depression in Chile, 1923–1934 . Business and Economic History 20.1 (1995), 176–185. Hoyt, Edwin P. , Jr. The Guggenheims and the American Dream . New York, 1967. Lomask, Milton . Seed Money: The Guggenheim Story . New York, 1964. O'Brien, Thomas F. Rich beyond the Dreams of Avarice: The Guggenheims in Chile . Business History Review 63.1 (1989), 122–159. O'Connor . The Guggenheims: The Making of an American Dynasty . New York,...

Measuring Health Utility in Economics

Measuring Health Utility in Economics   Reference library

José Luis Pinto Prades, Arthur Attema, and Fernando Ignacio Sánchez Martínez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
11,224 words
Illustration(s):
9

..., Dunn, W. , & Boyd, N. F. (1983). Measurement of values for states of health with linear analog scales. Medical Decision Making , 3 (4), 477–487. Sutherland, H. J. , Llewelyn-Thomas, H. , Boyd, N. F. , & Till, J. E. (1982). Attitudes toward quality of survival. The concept of “maximal endurable time.” Medical Decision Making , 2 (3), 299–309. Taylor, M. , Chilton, S. , Ronaldson, S. , Metcalf, H. , & Nielsen, J. S. (2017). Comparing increments in utility of health: An individual-based approach. Value Health , 20 (2), 224–229. Taylor, M. M...

State Farms

State Farms   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,209 words

...countries at certain points in time, the state has taken a more direct role in farming. The most pervasive form of this was in the Soviet Union, where a large group of farmers was forced to work on state farms directly under the control of government officials. State control over agriculture in the USSR began in late 1917 , after the revolution, when decrees banning the private ownership of land were enacted and peasant land committees were formed to take over management of private farms. This process was completed by mid- 1918 , with authority for these...

Models of Health and Addiction

Models of Health and Addiction   Reference library

Audrey Laporte and Brian S. Ferguson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
12,642 words
Illustration(s):
31

...i, and the final sum is overall necessary expenditure. In the LES form, current demand for commodity i was equal to necessary consumption plus some function of discretionary spending—income in excess of that amount that was needed to satisfy necessary consumption. Multiplying through by p i and dividing through by Y gave p i x i Y = p i γ i Y + β i ( 1 − ∑ j p j γ j Y ) , (20) where the dependent variable is now in the form of the share of total income devoted to commodity i. The LES form was convenient for demand system studies because it allowed the...

Duesenberry, James Stemble

Duesenberry, James Stemble (1918–2009)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,356 words

...A Model of U.S. Financial and Nonfinancial Economic Behavior, ’ Journal of Money Credit and Banking (1980), vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 317–20. ‘The Political Economy of Central Banking in the United States or Quis Custodiet Ipsos Custodes ,’ in D. R. Hodgman (ed.), The Political Economy of Monetary Policy: National and International Aspects (1983), Federal Reserve Bank of Boston Conference Series, no. 26, pp. 123–40. (with M. F. McPherson ) ‘ Monetary Management in Sub-Saharan Africa: Key Issues, ’ Journal of African Finance and Economic Development (1992),...

Sheep and Goats

Sheep and Goats   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,035 words
Illustration(s):
1

...where they could be fattened up. Such lands in the prevailing agrarian regime were becoming harder to find. Innovation in the form of a system of “up and down” or “convertible” husbandry in northwestern Europe, however, transformed this situation. Sown leys provided a rich grassland sward, which, after heavy stocking, could be broken up by plow, and the heavily manured land produced abundant supplies of cereal (yielding 1:15–20) and cleaning (flax, tobacco) crops. By the eighteenth century this system of husbandry, established in Britain, the northern and...

Industrial Relations

Industrial Relations   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,703 words

... Japan 1880 n.a. 1.8 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 1900 4.6 7.5 n.a. 20.8 5.0 n.a. 7.0 n.a. 3.4 4.8 12.7 n.a. n.a. 1914 8.6 10.5 n.a. 25.1 8.1 n.a. 16.9 17.0 13.6 9.9 23.0 32.8 n.a. 1928 11.6 9.9 41.7 39.7 8.0 n.a. 32.5 26.0 17.4 32.0 25.6 46.2 6.3 1939 10.9 20.7 n.a. 51.8 22.4 n.a. n.a. 32.5 57.0 53.6 31.6 39.2 5.3 1947 24.6 31.4 64.6 55.9 40.0 n.a. 29.1 40.4 ...

Knowles, Lilian Charlotte Anne

Knowles, Lilian Charlotte Anne (1870–1926)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
721 words

... 1921 she was appointed professor of economic history at the LSE, the first person to hold that post, She married C.J. Knowles, a barrister, in 1904; they had one son. Knowles also held several public appointments, including membership of the Royal Commission on Income Tax ( 1919–20 ), and on the council of both the Royal Economic Society and the Royal Historical Society. She received a DLitt degree from Trinity College, Dublin in 1906. Although underappreciated and little remembered today, Knowles made a considerable mark at the LSE. Twenty years after her...

The Effect of Education on Health and Mortality: A Review of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence

The Effect of Education on Health and Mortality: A Review of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence   Reference library

Titus J. Galama, Adriana Lleras-Muney, and Hans van Kippersluis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
29,925 words
Illustration(s):
41

... N = 18,785/20,335 H = Currently smoking (0.31) E = Years of education (9.68) Postwar expansion of education in France F-stat: 502/283 M/F –0.010 *** /–0.003 *** (0.001)/(0.001) [Table 1, Column 7/3] M/F -0.027 *** /–0.019 *** (0.003)/(0.004) [Table 1, Column 8/4] Jürges et al. (2011) German Micro-census for 1999 and 2003 Birth cohorts 1940–1980 N = 71,388/71,353 H = Currently smoking (0.38/0.29) E = Years of education (10.15/10.02) Differential expansion of education in Germany 1960s–1970s First stage: 41.2/51.8 (9.95)/(9.49) M/F –0.045 ***...

Hungary

Hungary   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,842 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., György Kövér , and János Honvári . Magyarország gazdaságtörténete a honfoglalástól a 20. század közepéig , edited by János Honvári . Budapest, 1996. The latest summary of the economic history of the country in Hungarian. The main chapters were written by specialists of different periods; consequently the concept has been based on eclectic points of view. Engel, Pál . The Realm of St. Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary, 895–1526 . London, 2000. Good, David F. The Economic Rise of the Habsburg Empire, 1760–1914 . Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London,...

Firm

Firm   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
7,553 words

...general incorporation came a bit later in continental Europe. Under the French Code de Commerce , which underpinned commercial law in most of western Europe, corporations ( sociétés anonymes ) could only be formed with the express consent of the government. In France, an 1863 law allowed corporations below a certain threshold size (capital of less than 20 million francs) to incorporate through a registration process, but larger firms still required specific state authorization. In 1867 , the capitalization limitation was removed, and general incorporation...

Rice Farming

Rice Farming   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,824 words
Illustration(s):
1

...dry rice areas or the great delta areas of Asia, rice's natural home. Even now many Asian farmers produce a yield of only 2 tons per hectare, a small increase over historical levels. Although the latest varieties can produce yields up to 20 tons, this is possible only under perfect conditions, which rarely apply. R ice F arming . Scenes of African Americans working in rice fields, Ogeechee River, near Savannah, Georgia, 1867. Illustration by Alfred R. Waud (1828–1891), Harper's Weekly, 5 January 1867, p. 8. (Prints and Photographs Division, Library of...

Postan, Michael

Postan, Michael   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,745 words

...scholars, who shared with contemporaries that fascination with the architectural and artistic forms of classical antiquity then being recreated in their own times, engaged in the common view (still often expressed today) that the intervening years had seen nothing created of comparable grandeur. The origins of their current state of enlightenment in these matters need be sought no earlier than the Renaissance, when the rediscovery of classical forms reopened the path of learning that was to achieve ultimate realization in the Enlightenment....

Bosanquet, Charles

Bosanquet, Charles (1769–1769)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,107 words

...J.J. Diamond (ed.), Issues in Fiscal and Monetary Policy: The Eclectic Economist Views the Controversy (Minneapolis, 1971). Sproul, M.F. , ‘Backed Money, Fiat Money, and the Real Bills Doctrine’, UCLA Working Paper #774B , http://econpapers.hhs.se/paper/clauclawp/774b.htm (1978). Tobin, J. , ‘Commercial Banks as Creators of Money’, in D. Carson (ed.), Banking and Monetary Studies (Homewood, Illinois, 1963). Michael F....

The Rationale for Interventions to Foster Child Development

The Rationale for Interventions to Foster Child Development   Reference library

Samuel Berlinski and Marcos Vera-Hernández

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
9,246 words
Illustration(s):
2

.... American Economic Review , 92 (5), 1308–1334. Cunha, F. (2011). Recent developments in the identification and estimation of production functions of skills . Fiscal Studies , 32 (2), 297–316. Cunha, F. , & Heckman, J. (2007). The technology of skill formation . American Economic Review , 97 (2), 31–47. Cunha, F. & Heckman J. J. (2008) Formulating, identifying, and estimating the technology for the formation of skills. Journal of Human Resources , 43 (4), 738–782. Cunha F. , Heckman J. J. , Lochner, L. , & Masterov, D. V. (2006)....

Oil Industry

Oil Industry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
10,174 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Prindle, David F. Petroleum Politics and the Texas Railroad Commission . Austin, 1981. Rees, Judith , and Peter Odell . The International Oil Industry: An Interdisciplinary Perspective . New York, 1987. Sampson, Anthony . The Seven Sisters: The Great Oil Companies and the World They Shaped . New York, 1975. Vietor, Richard H. K. Energy Policy in America since 1945 . Cambridge, 1984. Williamson, Harold F. , and Arnold R. Daum . The American Petroleum Industry: The Age of Illumination, 1859–1899 . Evanston, Ill., 1959. Williamson, Harold F. , and Arnold...

Nuclear Power

Nuclear Power   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,397 words
Illustration(s):
2

...largest market share. In the 1970s LWRs became dominant. In 1999 these plants generated over 75 percent of the electricity in France and Lithuania, about 20 percent in the United Kingdom and the United States, and less than 5 percent in China and India. Although costs vary between technologies and across countries, approximately 60 percent of total cost is for plant construction, 20 percent for fuel, and 20 percent for operations and maintenance (see, for example, NEA, 1998 ). National Programs Each country developed nuclear power under a unique set of...

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