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Form 20-F

In the USA, the form required by the Securities and Exchange Commission for the filing of annual results by non-US companies.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator  

One of the most popular personality questionnaires, especially in commercial and industrial contexts, designed to implement the theory of function types first suggested in 1923 by the Swiss ...
agnosia

agnosia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,578 words

...more must be added to account for the unity of visual experience, namely integration mechanisms that bind together different information into an organized and useful conscious mosaic. Thomas Van Vleet and Lynn C. Robertson Benson, D. F. and Greenberg, J. P. (1969). ‘ Visual form agnosia ’. Archives of Neurology , 20. Bentin, S. , DeGutis, J. M. , D' Esposito, M. , and Robertson, L. C. (2007). ‘ Too many trees to see the forest: performance, ERP and fMRI manifestations of integrative congenital prosopagnosia ’. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience ,...

autonoetic consciousness

autonoetic consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,479 words

...‘ Episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness: a first‐person approach ’. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London , 356. Klein, S. B. , Loftus, J. , and Kihlstrom, J. F. (2002). ‘ Memory and temporal experience: the effects of episodic memory loss on an amnesic patient's ability to remember the past and imagine the future ’. Social Cognition , 20. Perner, J. (2001). ‘Episodic memory: essential distinctions and developmental implications.’ In Moore, C. and Lemmon, K. P. (eds) Self in Time: Developmental Perspectives . Piolino, P....

correlates of consciousness, computational

correlates of consciousness, computational   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,676 words

...‘ The control of short‐term memory ’. Scientific American , 225(2). Baars, B. J. (1988). A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness . Cleeremans, A. , Timmermans, B. , and Pasquali, A. (2007). ‘ Consciousness and metarepresentation: a computational sketch ’. Neural Networks , 20. Crick, F. H. C. and Koch, C. (1990). ‘ Towards a neurobiological theory of consciousness ’. Seminars in the Neurosciences , 2. —— —— (2003). ‘ A framework for consciousness ’. Nature Neuroscience , 6. Dehaene, S. , Kerszberg, M. , and Changeux, J.‐P. (1998). ‘ A neuronal model...

brain development

brain development   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
6,208 words
Illustration(s):
5

...fetus, the cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum form. a. By 2 months all the special senses of the head, and the face, hands, and feet are well formed and clearly human. b. At 4 months the cerebral hemispheres and thalamus are swelling rapidly, but cortical cells are undeveloped. c. In the mid-fetal period (20 weeks) there is a great production of neurons in the cortex. After birth there is a multiplication of glia cells as dendrites grow. The newborn brain has proportionally small parietal (P), frontal (F), and temporal (T) lobes, and cerebellum (C),...

after‐effects, perceptual

after‐effects, perceptual   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,772 words
Illustration(s):
2

...constitutes a gender‐neutral face, and the two photographs on either side of the neutral face are versions biased toward female (left) and toward male (right). Maintain fixation on the right‐hand photograph for 20 s or so and then look at the middle photograph—for the first few seconds, it should look more ‘female’. Next, adapt for 20 s to the left‐hand photograph and notice how the appearance of the gender‐neutral face now looks more ‘male’. Photographs courtesy of Tamara Watson and Colin Clifford, University of Sydney. Perceptual after‐effects may...

bit

bit   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
756 words

...‘ bit rate ’ for human performance, first defined by W. H. Hake and W. R. Garner in 1951 . Their subjects identified positions of a pointer on a linear scale, with various possible positions for the pointer. With five positions the subjects lost no information, but with 10, 20, or 50 alternatives the transmitted information was effectively constant, at about 3.0 bits. People can only identify about nine points on a line; increasing the number of alternatives does not increase the amount of information transmitted. The human bit rate for choices along a...

Islamic philosophy

Islamic philosophy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
868 words

...of all existence; in making the effect dependent for both its being and its movement on what was prior to it; and in regarding all knowledge as the result of illumination. (Leff 1958 : 154 f.) Characteristically, T. P. Hughes's massive Dictionary of Islam of 1885 ( 1964 edn., p. 452) baldly repeats: ‘The whole philosophy of the Arabians was only a form of Aristotelianism tempered more or less with Neo-Platonic conceptions.’ More recently this generalization has been challenged with great vigour by both Muslim and Western scholars. The Arab...

psychosomatic disease: philosophical and psychological aspects

psychosomatic disease: philosophical and psychological aspects   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
814 words

...diseases pure and simple, which are explicable solely in terms of bodily dysfunction without reference to the psyche of the patient. Although the word ‘psychosomatic’ was used by Coleridge , and its reversed form ‘somapsyche’ occurs in the original Greek of the New Testament, the concept of psychosomatic disease dates properly from the first half of the 20th century, when it became necessary to have a concept that cut across the division of diseases into physical (somatic) and mental (psychical) which had been established by Freud and Breuer 's demonstration...

remembering

remembering   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,677 words

...temporal schema as an aid in rehearsing and properly presenting their speeches (see Yates 1966 ). In modern times the associationism of British empiricism and German experimentalism was seriously questioned during the first half of the 20th century by the Gestalt psychologists in general and by the British psychologist F. C. Bartlett in particular. Today we know in some detail what it is that repetition makes possible, what it is that is needed in addition to mere repetition. A set of objects, events, or mental representations is said to be organized...

art and visual abstraction

art and visual abstraction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,613 words
Illustration(s):
6

...of linear abstraction can be distinguished in the graphic arts: (i) the enhancement of form and contour by linear outlines; (ii) the emphasis of the structural axes of the body, independent of contoured forms; and (iii) the representation of movement by schematic line drawings. To put it simply: outlines determine the form (Fig. 2), axial lines show the structure, and certain relations of structural axes signify a body in motion (Fig. 6). Only the contour form of linear abstraction (i) can be explained by neurophysiological processes, as is shown in...

intelligence differences

intelligence differences   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,455 words

...the associations among the test scores. Over the 20th century the suggestions ranged as follows: one (Spearman), a huge number ( Thomson ), about seven unrelated intelligences ( Thurstone ), perhaps 120 distinct abilities ( Guilford ), seven to nine-and-a-half ( Gardner ) (Neisser et al. 1996 ). The answer that most researchers accept today was available in the first half of the 20th century, from the British psychologists Philip E. Vernon and Sir Cyril Burt . Both suggested that human intelligences formed a hierarchy, and that it was not necessary to...

mind in science fiction

mind in science fiction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,022 words

...physical laws, must produce broadly convergent results. Nevertheless, the majority of ‘aliens’ in sf are really humans in fancy dress. ‘Adzell the Wodenite’ may be a 6-metre (20-foot) crocodilian centauroid who is almost bulletproof, but ‘inside’ he is that stock figure, the gentle giant. Sometimes writers take a known human characteristic and endow aliens with it in an exaggerated form. Niven's ‘Puppeteers’ carry caution to the point where abject cowardice is regarded as sanity: no human has ever met a sane member of the species because no sane one would ever...

mental imagery

mental imagery   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,466 words

...its grip on psychology, about two-thirds of the way through the 20th century, mental imagery was one of the first mentalistic concepts to emerge into prominence. Initially this emergence showed up in the use of ‘imagery ratings’, which overtook the venerable frequency-of-occurrence index as an ‘intervening variable’ in traditional studies of associative learning and memory. Soon after the rehabilitation of mental imagery began, a large number of experiments were performed to explore the form and function of mental images in reasoning. These experiments...

opium

opium   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,011 words

...opium to small children as a sedative was a pernicious practice and a not infrequent cause of wasting and premature death. Although somewhat conflicting opinions were expressed by the medical profession, eventually restrictions were placed on the sale of opium to the public. In the 20th century these restrictions were tightened, the main impetus for strict control of the sale of opium and its derivatives coming from the USA, at first through the Harrison Narcotic Act of 1914 and later through the League of Nations and the United Nations Commission on Narcotic...

phenomenology

phenomenology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,150 words

...I. , and Marbach, E. (eds) (1989/1993). An Introduction to Husserlian Phenomenology . Brentano, F. (1874/1995). Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint , transl. A. C. Rancurello et al. Husserl, E. (1900–01/2001). Logical Investigations , Vols 1 and 2, transl. J. N. Findlay, ed. and rev. D. Moran . —— (1913/1983). Ideas pertaining to a Pure Phenomenology and a Phenomenological Philosophy, First Book: General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology , transl. F. Kersten. Kriegel, U. and Williford, K. (eds). (2006). Self‐representational Approaches to...

literature and consciousness

literature and consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,756 words

...‘[f]or the classical view’ to Flaubert , Stendhal , Joyce , and Proust in contrast to ‘modern and science‐inspired’ writers ( 2003 :308–9). The area where literature and the study of consciousness intersect perhaps most interestingly is that of narrative. Stories exist outside literature, of course, when we tell others what happened to us when they were not present to observe the events themselves. This capacity surely pre‐existed writing and may have first been non‐verbal, as cave paintings may suggest. The ability to produce narrative in some form...

calculating geniuses

calculating geniuses   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,489 words

...and so on repeated. This I divide mentally by 23. 23 into 0.027 is 0.001 with remainder 4. In a flash I can get that 23 into 4,027 is 175 with remainder 2. And into 2,027 is 88 with remainder 3. And into 3,027 is 131 with remainder 14. And even into 14,027 is 609 with remainder 20. And so on like that. Also, before I even start this … I know that there is a recurring period of sixty-six places. He was asked to multiply 123 by 456, and gave the answer after a pause of two seconds. He then commented as follows: I see at once that 123 times 450 is 55,350, and...

attention, neural basis

attention, neural basis   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,590 words
Illustration(s):
5

...as during directed attention in the presence of visual stimulation, consisting of the FEF, the SEF, and the SPL (Fig. A20a, b). As in visual cortical areas, there is an increase in activity in these frontal and parietal areas due to directed attention in the absence of visual input. However, (1) this increase in activity is stronger in SPL, FEF, and SEF than the increase in activity seen in visual cortex (as exemplified for FEF in Fig. A20c), and (2) there is no further increase in activity evoked by the attended stimulus presentations in these parietal and...

aesthetic experience

aesthetic experience   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,784 words

..., 6. Schlick, M. (1909/1978). ‘ The fundamental problems of aesthetics, seen in an evolutionary light ’. In Mulder, H. L. and van Velde‐Schlick, B. F. B. (eds) Philosophical Papers I , 1909–1922. Scruton, R. (1974). Art and Imagination . —— (1979). The Aesthetics of Architecture . —— (1989). ‘Contemporary philosophy and the neglect of aesthetics’. The Philosopher on Dover Beach . Sibley, F. (2001). Approach to Aesthetics . Zangwill, N. (2001). The Metaphysics of Beauty . Zeki, S. (1999). Inner Vision . Zemach, E. (1997). Real Beauty...

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