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Form 20-F

In the USA, the form required by the Securities and Exchange Commission for the filing of annual results by non-US companies.

low-temperature physics

low-temperature physics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
969 words

...), and the Royal Institution in London ( James Dewar )—engaged in a race to lower temperatures and the liquefaction of hydrogen and, after its discovery on Earth in 1895 , helium. In 1898 , Dewar won the race for hydrogen, using a variation on Linde's technique to reach about 20° Kelvin. In 1908 , Kamerlingh Onnes used liquid hydrogen to cool helium enough to condense it at low pressure, at around 5° K. The Leiden laboratory thereafter enjoyed a fifteen-year monopoly in the production of liquid helium. The early history of cryogenics illustrates the...

chemical and biological warfare

chemical and biological warfare   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
755 words

...and they offer substantial leverage to subnational groups and smaller powers against much larger nations. Victor A. Utgoff , The Challenge of Chemical Weapons. An American Perspective (1980). Robert Harris and Jeremy Paxman , A Higher Form of Killing. The Secret Story of Gas and Germ Warfare (1982). L. F. Haber , The Poisonous Cloud. Gas Warfare in World War I (1986). Ken Alibek , Biohazard (1999). Theodore S....

astrophysics

astrophysics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
1,315 words

...the carbon to nitrogen and then to oxygen; and ends in nuclei of carbon-12 and helium-4 plus energy. A bit later Bethe also envisioned a proton-proton reaction: two protons (hydrogen nuclei) form a nucleus of deuterium (one proton becoming one neutron); the addition of a third proton creates a helium-3 nucleus (two protons, one neutron), two of which collide to form helium-4 (two protons, two neutrons) while ejecting two protons. The net result in both cases is the fusion of four hydrogen nuclei into one helium nucleus plus a release of energy. The...

Brain wiring

Brain wiring  

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

...but, almost like a hangover from Golgi's string bag, he imagined the links to be a random mesh. The parts were interchangeable. Only by learning and experience, Weiss thought, did the connections acquire purpose and meaning. Experiments with animals kept Sperry busy for nearly 20 years and he proved Weiss wrong—at least in part. The circuits of the brain are largely hardwired from the outset. In a developing embryo, each nerve fibre is tagged and its target predetermined. Sperry used mainly creatures noted for their capacity for self-repair by regeneration,...

Cryosphere

Cryosphere   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
2,865 words

...the Bronze Age. Joughin and Tulaczyk suggested tentatively: ‘It represents a reversal of the long-term Holocene retreat.’ Sea-ice contradictions The ice that forms on polar seas, to a thickness of a few metres, responds far more rapidly than the ice sheets on land do, to climate changes—even to year-to-year variations in seasonal temperatures. Obviously the ice requires a cold sea surface to form. Almost as plain is the consequent loss of incoming solar warmth, when the ice scatters the sunlight back into space and threatens visitors with snow blindness....

Human origins

Human origins  

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

...origins Why most of those exhumations are only of great-aunts F ollow the düssel stream east from Düsseldorf in Germany and you soon come to an adjacent gorge called Neanderthal. In a cave there, in 1856 , workmen found human bones significantly different from those of modern people. Thirty years later the status of Neanderthal Man as an extinct form of humankind was assured when similar bones turned up at Spy in Belgium, along with tools and the bones of extinct animals. During the 20th century Neanderthaler remains were found widely in Eurasia. Early...

Optometry

Optometry   Reference library

Diane D. Edwards

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...came controversies over licensing laws and government regulations. Until the late nineteenth century, the field had no official standards of practice, education, or competency. In 1896 , seeking stricter controls over who could prescribe eyeglasses, Charles F. Prentice and Andrew Jay Cross formed the Optical Society of New York. As other state societies arose, practitioners lobbied legislatures for regulatory statutes. Minnesota imposed the first regulations, in 1901 , and by 1925 all of the states and the District of Columbia had passed such...

Abortion Debates and Science

Abortion Debates and Science   Reference library

Tracy A. Weitz and Carole Joffe

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Synthesis and Analysis of Research Published 1995–2009.” The British Journal of Psychiatry 199, no. 3 (2011): 180–186. Daling, J. R. , K. E. Malone , L. F. Voigt , E. White , and N. S. Weiss . “Risk of Breast Cancer Among Young Women: Relationship to Induced Abortion.” Journal of the National Cancer Institute 86, no. 21 (1994): 1584. Eckholm, E. “New Laws in 6 States Ban Abortions after 20 Weeks.” New York Times , June 26, 2011, p. A10. Fabrizi, L. , R. Slater , A. J. Meek , S. Boyd , S. Olhede , and M. Fitzgerald . “A Shift in Sensory Processing...

Missiles and Rockets

Missiles and Rockets   Reference library

J. D. Hunley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Tactical Missiles.” AIAA-2011-6941. Paper presented at the AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference, Centennial of Naval Aviation Forum, 20–22 September 2011, Virginia Beach, Virginia. NASA, Space Shuttle . “Space Shuttle Program: Spanning 30 Years of Discovery.” http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/main/index.html , no pagination (accessed 20 March 2012). A competent, up-to-date summary of the Space Shuttle program’s history. Sutton, George P. , and Oscar Biblarz . Rocket Propulsion Elements . 8th ed. Hoboken, N...

metrics of science

metrics of science   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...called “co-citation clustering.” The results captured very well Price's concept of invisible colleges and showed these areas forming and merging as local areas of order in the vast sea of scientific knowledge. The technique led to an upsurge of interest in mapping change in scientific knowledge at a detailed, subdisciplinary level, either at one point in time or the changes over time. As the computational tools developed, a second form of mapping the fine structure of scientific knowledge was developed: co-word analysis. Again, it was brought into...

Machinery and Manufacturing

Machinery and Manufacturing   Reference library

Ross Thomson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Company . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1945. Mowery, David C. , and Nathan Rosenberg . Paths of Innovation: Technological Change in 20th-Century America . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Nader, John . “The Rise of an Inventive Profession: Learning Effects in the Midwestern Harvester Industry, 1850–1890.” Journal of Economic History 52 (June 1994): 397–408. Noble, David F. America by Design: Science, Technology, and the Rise of Corporate Capitalism . New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1977. Nye, David E. Electrifying America:...

Robots

Robots   Reference library

Lisa Nocks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...f=false . Roselund, Harold A. Mea ns for Moving Spray Guns or Other Devices through Pre-determined Paths . U.S. 2,344,108. Filed 17 August 1939 and issued 14 March 1944. Accessed 15 January 2012 from http://www.google.com/patents/US2344108 . Rosheim, Mark E. Robot Evolution: The Development of Anthrobotics . New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1994. Ross, Philip E. “Westinghouse Cuts Interest in Robots.” New York Times Business Day , 11 June 1987. Accessed 20 January 2012 from ...

Psychology

Psychology   Reference library

James H. Capshew

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Leary , eds. A Century of Psychology as Science . Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 1992. (Originally published 1985.) Massive collection of historical reflections. Miner, Burt G. “The Changing Attitude of American Universities toward Psychology.” Science , 20 (1904): 299–307. Morawski, Jill G. , ed. The Rise of Experimentation in American Psychology . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1988. Historical case studies from a social constructionist perspective. Neisser, Ulric . Cognitive Psychology . Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall...

family, the, and science

family, the, and science   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...LeVay, Simon . “ A Difference in Hypothalamic Structure between Heterosexual and Homosexual Men. ” Science 253 (1991): 1034–1037. Lund, Dale A. “Caregiving.” In Encyclopedia of Adult Development , edited by R. Kastenbaum , 57–63. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1993. Ogburn, W. F. , and M. F. Nimkoff . Technology and the Changing Family . Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1955. Puterbaugh, Geoff . Twins and Homosexuality: A Casebook . New York: Garland, 1990. Rapp, Rayna . “Real-Time Fetus.” In Cyborgs and Citadels: Anthropological Interventions in Emerging...

Ophthalmology

Ophthalmology   Reference library

James Ravin and Michael F. Marmor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Otology in 1896 . (Ophthalmology and otology separated amicably in 1979 .) The American Academy of Ophthalmology has become the largest association of eye care providers in the world and sponsors the largest annual ophthalmological conference in the world. In 2012 , it had about 20 thousand U.S. ophthalmologists and 7 thousand international members (American Academy of Ophthalmology, 2012 ). From 1878 to 1971 the section on ophthalmology of the American Medical Association served similar functions as the American Academy of Ophthalmology, but the American...

Radio

Radio   Reference library

Christopher H. Sterling

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...later merged into one provider) and later from terrestrial transmitters. Despite the adoption of a single system, digital radio broadcasting expanded slowly because it required the purchase of special automobile and home receivers, thus remaining a mere niche service (perhaps 20 percent of the total radio audience) well into the second decade of the twenty-first century. Mobility and Distance. Radio lends itself to mobile communication, as well as to great distances. Using radio while on the move originated aboard merchant and naval ships early in the...

medical community, the

medical community, the   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...of the Television Drama ER Lends Support to the Notion That Americans Pick Up Information While Being Entertained. ” Health Affairs 20.1 (2001): 192–199. Cline, R. J. “ At the Intersection of Micro and Macro: Opportunities and Challenges for Physician-Patient Communication Research. ” Patient Education & Counseling 50.1 (2003): 13–16. Earp, J. A. , E. Eng , M. S. O'Malley , M. Altpeter , G. Rauscher , L. Mayne , H. F. Mathews , K. S. Lynch , and B. Qaqish . “ Increasing Use of Mammography Among Older, Rural African American Women: Results from a...

Chemistry

Chemistry   Reference library

Anthony N. Stranges

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...bond. Lewis also made Gibbs’s thermodynamics intelligible to chemists. Gibbs’s publications were highly mathematical and lacked concrete examples to illustrate his thermodynamic principles, nor had Gibbs established a following of graduate students to continue his program. For over 20 years Lewis and his Berkeley colleagues, particularly William Giauque ( 1896–1971 ), a future Nobel Prize winner, provided the experimental evidence supporting thermodynamic functions such as Rudolf Clausius’s entropy and Gibbs’s free energy while introducing important new...

Foundations and Health

Foundations and Health   Reference library

Kevin A. Walters

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...exponentially over the next few decades. In 2012 , the NSF listed their annual budget as around $7 billion, which accounted for 20 percent of all federally funded research in U.S. higher education (“NSF at a Glance,” http://www.nsf.gov/ ). In addition, the NIH invested nearly $31 billion dollars in medical research in 2012 . Of that budget, 80 percent went to universities, medical schools, and research institutes in the form of grants (“NIH Budget,” http://www.nih.gov/ ; Anheier and Hammack, 2013 , pp. 75–78). In the face of these ballooning public...

Biotechnology

Biotechnology   Reference library

Robert Bud

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...1991. The best view of the impact on academe of the enthusiasm for industrial genetics. U.S. Office of Technology Assessment . Commercial Biotechnology: An International Analysis . Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984. http://www.princeton.edu/~ota/ns20/alpha_f.html (accessed 9 April 2012). This report was a key document in making a narrative out of sometimes apparently chaotic diversity. Van Beuzecom, Brigitte , and Anthony Arundel . OECD Biotechnology Statistics 2009 . http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/4/23/42833898.pdf (accessed 9...

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