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Form 20-F

In the USA, the form required by the Securities and Exchange Commission for the filing of annual results by non-US companies.

Simon Wiesenthal

Simon Wiesenthal   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,417 words

...and the Abuse of History . Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2005. Finkelstein, Norman G. The Holocaust Industry: Reflections on the Exploitation of Jewish Suffering . 2d ed. New York: Verso, 2003. http://portal.unesco.org/en/file_download.php/4c2af3045fc23f0d1a48d720d7f33600074+2nd+Conference+Educating+for+Tolerance.+Case+Resurgent+Antisemitism.pdf. Huttenbach, Henry R. “ In Memoriam: Simon Wiesenthal, 1908–2005. ” Journal of Genocide Research 8, no. 1 (March 2006): 7–8. Kamm, Henry . “Wiesenthal Defends His Role in Waldheim Affair.” New...

Democracy and Right to Participation

Democracy and Right to Participation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,572 words

...individuals acquire the power to decide by means of a competitive struggle for the people's vote” (p. 269). Many criticisms have been expressed of that form of government, for example, that it perpetuates elite domination or that it leads to ill-judged citizen choices. But as Winston Churchill , the British prime minister, once said, “Democracy is the worst form of government, except for all those other forms that have been tried from time to time” ( Official Report, House of Commons , pp. 206–207). The Principle of Popular Sovereignty Democracy and political...

Rights to Thought, Speech, and Assembly

Rights to Thought, Speech, and Assembly   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,899 words

...materials on the Internet, was again ruled unconstitutional by the Federal Appeals Court. In the 1980s some groups organized an effort to declare degrading portrayals of women a form of sex discrimination. An ordinance to that effect was enacted in Indianapolis, Indiana, but was struck down on First Amendment grounds in American Booksellers Association, Inc. v. Hudnut , 771 F.2d 323 ( 1985 ). However, a similar law, defining obscenity as “undue exploitation of sex” that is “degrading or dehumanizing” or “coupled with one or more of crime, horror, cruelty...

Sexual and Gender Diversity

Sexual and Gender Diversity   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,639 words

...school.” This was held to be “sex stereotyping” and a form of discrimination on the basis of sex, in violation of U.S. law. Subsequent U.S. cases have ruled that a reference to sex does not include sexual orientation. In addition, differing rulings have occurred in cases involving transsexuals. Same-sex sexual harassment was held to be a form of sex discrimination by the Supreme Court in the 1998 Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services case (523 U.S. 75). In 2006 in Jespersen v. Harrah's Casino (444 F. 3rd, 1104 , Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals) a...

Right to Food and Adequate Standard of Living

Right to Food and Adequate Standard of Living   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,840 words

...PEOPLES International Indian Treaty Council. An Analysis of United States International Policy on Indigenous Peoples, the Human Right to Food and Food Security . Palmer, Alaska: International Indian Treaty Council, 2002. http://www.treatycouncil.org/International%20Indigenous%20Food%20Policy%20Issues.pdf NORTH KOREA Amnesty International. Starved of Rights: Human Rights and the Food Crisis in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) . New York: Amnesty International, 2004. http://web.amnesty.org/library/index/engasa240032004 PHILIPPINES...

Protestantism

Protestantism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,087 words

...On the great question of slavery, for example, a mixed response emerged. American Quakers formed the first antislavery society in 1776 and Protestant revivalists fueled the abolitionist movements of the nineteenth century. In turn, English evangelical leaders such as John Newton and William Wilberforce successfully campaigned for an end to the slave trade and then slavery itself in British colonies. This astounding accomplishment required the appropriation of 20 million pounds in 1833 to buy the freedom of some eight hundred thousand slaves scattered...

Religious Freedom

Religious Freedom   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,452 words

...the international level in the near future. Bibliography Benito, Elizabeth Odio . Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief . United Nations, 1989. Boyle, Kevin , and Juliet Sheen , eds. Freedom of Religion and Belief: A World Report . London: Routledge, 1997. Gaer, Felice . “Echoes of the Future? Religious Repression as a Challenge to US Human Rights Policy.” In The Future of Human Rights , edited by William F. Shulz . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008. Hertzke, Allen D. Freeing god's...

Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights

Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,636 words

...Social and Cultural Rights. ” Human Rights Quarterly 20 (1998): 705–730. Eide, Asbjørn , Catarina Krause , and Allan Rosas , eds. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: A Textbook . 2d rev. ed. Dordrecht, The Netherlands and Boston: Martinus Nijoff; Norwell, Mass.: Kluwer Law International, 2001. Felice , William F. The Global New Deal: Economic and Social Human Rights in World Politics . Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003. Felice, William F. “ The UN Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination: Race, and Economic and Social...

African Union

African Union   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,913 words

...Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights. http://www.achpr.org . African Union. http://www.africa-union.org/root/au/index/index.htm . African Union. African [Banjul] Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights . http://www.africa-union.org/official_documents/Treaties_%20Conventions_%20Protocols/Banjul%20Charter.pdf . African Union. Decision on the Seats of the African Union . Assembly/AU/Dec.45(III). http://www.asil.org/rio/africanunion.html . Ankumah, Evelyn A. The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights: Practices and Procedures . The Hague: Martinus...

Refugees

Refugees   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,763 words

...threats would be protected under this provision. On the other hand, the Torture Convention protects only against refoulement based on torture and does not offer protection for other forms of human rights violations. Exclusion from Refugee Protection In addition to the exclusions in Article 33, paragraph 2, of the Refugee Convention noted above, Article 1, section F, identifies three categories of persons who because of their past actions are considered undeserving of protection as refugees under the Convention, even if these individuals are genuinely at...

China

China   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
13,083 words

...People's Republic of China: The Human Rights Exception. ” Human Rights Quarterly 9, no. 4 (1987): 447–549. Davis, Deborah , and Ezra F. Vogel , eds. Chinese Society on the Eve of Tiananmen: The Impact of Reform . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1990. Ding, Yijiang . Chinese Democracy after Tiananmen . Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2001. Dui Hua . “ Dialogues at a Crossroads. ” Dialogue 20 (2005): 1–3. Eckholm, Eric . “Workers’ Rights Suffering in China as Manufacturing Goes Capitalist.” New York Times , August 22, 2001....

Torture

Torture   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
21,128 words

...under Article 20 From 1993 to 2002 the CAT published inquiry reports on 5 of the 129 states subject to the procedure detailed in Article 20(1) of the Convention. “If the Committee receives reliable information which appears to it to contain well-founded indications that torture is being systematically practised in the territory of a State Party, the Committee shall invite that State Party to co-operate in the examination of the information and to this end to submit observations with regard to the information concerned.” Since Article 20 requires that “all...

Globalization

Globalization   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,031 words

...F. The Global New Deal: Economic and Social Human Rights in World Politics . Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003. Forsythe, David P. Human Rights in International Relations . 2d ed. Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Gibney, Mark . Five Uneasy Pieces: American Ethics in a Globalized World . Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005. Gunderson, James L. “Multinational Corporations as Non-State Actors in the Human Rights Arena.” In Non-State Actors in the Human Rights Universe , edited by George Andreopoulos , Zehra F....

Organization of American States

Organization of American States   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,774 words

...Persons, and Migrant Workers: Essays in Memory of Joan Fitzpatrick and Arthur Helton , edited by Anne F. Bayefsky , pp. 387–442. Leiden, the Netherlands; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 2006. Davidson, Scott . The Inter-American Human Rights System . Aldershot, Hants, England; Brookfield, Vt.: Dartmouth, 1997. García Ramírez, Sergio . Los derechos humanos y la jurisdicción interamericana [Human Rights and Inter-American Jurisdiction]. Mexico, D.F.: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2002. Harris, David J. , and Stephen Livingstone , eds. The...

Nanjing Massacre

Nanjing Massacre   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,648 words

...Rosen, Georg . A Report to German Foreign Ministry, January 20, 1938. Document No. 2722/1011/38, Archives of German Embassy in China, R9208/2190/24–27, Bundesarchiv [Federal Archives], Berlin. Shang, Teh-yi . Written testimony, July 26, 1946. Document No. 1735, Exhibit No. 206, Microfilm Set T918, Roll 12, Court Papers, Journal, Exhibit, and Judgment of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, Record Group 238, National Archives II, College Park, Md. Sone, Hubert Lafayette . Letter to P. F. Price, January 16, 1938. Missionary Files: Methodist...

Women

Women   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
22,697 words

...” Human Rights Quarterly 3 (1981):11-32. Rupp, Leila . Worlds of Women: The Making of an International Women's Movement . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1997. Sen, Amartya . “ More Than 100 Million Women Are Missing. ” New York Review of Books 37, no. 20 (December 20, 1990). http://ucatlas.ucsc.edu/gender/Sen100M.html . Stark, Barbara . “ Women, Globalization and Law: A Change of World” (Blaine Sloan Lecture) . Pace Journal of International Law 16 (2004): 333–356. Steiner, Henry , and Philip Alston . International Human Rights in...

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,586 words

...responsible to the Colonial Office in London, it granted the settlers a form of political autonomy that excluded the much larger indigenous African population from political affairs. In 1931 the government passed a Land Apportionment Act that allocated the best farmland to the colony's tiny white minority, sowing the seeds for the post-independence conflict over land. In the late 1950s, when the British began to grant independence to other African colonies, white Rhodesians formed the Rhodesian Front Party to block majority African rule. Ian Smith , its...

Freedom House

Freedom House   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,150 words

...Francis Pickens . Man from the Valley: Memoirs of a 20th Century Virginian . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1972. Peters, Charles . Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing “We Want Willkie!” Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World . New York: Public Affairs, 2005. Puddington, Arch . Lane Kirkland: Champion of American Labor . Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley, 2005. Seabury, Paul , ed. Universities in the Western World . New York: Free Press, 1975. Smith, Andrew F. Rescuing the World: The Life and Times of Leo Cherne ....

Botswana and Lesotho

Botswana and Lesotho   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,886 words

...some 61 percent, is mountainous, the so-called highlands, averaging between 2,100 and 3,000 meters (between 1.3 and 1.9 miles) in elevation, with some peaks in the Maluti Mountains as high as 3,482 meters (about 2.2 miles). The lowlands make up about a fifth of the country (20 percent) and are primarily on the western and northern boundary. The foothills make up 15 percent of the land area. The fourth major ecological zone, the Senqu River valley, makes up 4 percent. Of the total area of the country, 2 percent is residential. In 1986 the governments of...

Weapons of Mass Destruction

Weapons of Mass Destruction   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,862 words

...has been upheld by the Commission on Human Rights’ special rapporteurs on human rights and the environment (report of 6 July 1994 , UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1994/9) and on the adverse effects of the illicit movement and dumping of toxic and dangerous products and wastes (report of 20 February 2006 , UN Doc. E/CN.4/2006/42, paras. 34–43). In its Nuclear Weapons opinion, the ICJ examined environmental issues in the context of international humanitarian law, considering that in an armed conflict, states had “to take environmental considerations into account in...

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