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Form 20-F

In the USA, the form required by the Securities and Exchange Commission for the filing of annual results by non-US companies.

-able

-able   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
777 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

..., extendible , and extensible . The first of these is now prevalent in AmE (though labeled obsolete in the OED ). Extensible was, through the mid-20th century, the most common form, but today it trails extendable by a substantial margin, while ✳extendible continues to appear infrequently. Writers and editors ought to settle on the most firmly established form— extendable , which is as well formed as the variants—and trouble their minds with weightier matters. See differentiation & mute e . B. Attaching -able to Nouns. This passive suffix is...

Hybrids

Hybrids   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
500 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... [Gk. tele- + OF preint ]), became quite common in the 20th century. In fact, they have existed for a very long time in English: grandfather (dating from the 15th century) has a French prefix and an English root; bicycle (dating from the mid-19th century) has a Latin prefix and a Greek root. One occasionally finds hybrids criticized in older literature—e.g.: • “ Ize and ist ‘are Greek terminations, and cannot properly be added to Anglo-Saxon words. Ist is the substantive form, ize the verbal.’ Jeopard ize is one of the monsters made by...

Comparatives and Superlatives

Comparatives and Superlatives   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
769 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as the greater of A [ and ? or ?] B . Logic would seem to demand and to include all the options in the comparison before one is singled out as being the lesser , biggest , oldest , latter , etc. But in fact, since the early 20th century or has been about ten times as common in print as and with this type of phrasing. F. Absolute Adjectives. See adjectives (b)...

Plurals

Plurals   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,782 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

..., at C4. F. Proper Names. Although few books on grammar mention the point, proper names often cause problems as plurals. The rule is simple: most take a simple -s , while those ending in -s , -x , or -z , or in a sibilant -ch or -sh , take -es . Thus: Singular Form Plural Form Adam Adams Adams Adamses Bush Bushes Church Churches Cox Coxes Flowers Flowerses Jones Joneses Levy Levys Lipschutz Lipschutzes Mary Marys Rabiej Rabiejs (the -j- is silent) Shapiro Shapiros Sinz Sinzes Thomas Thomases Plurals such as these are often erroneously formed by...

Possessives

Possessives   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,753 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of it is ( see its ). (2) Biblical and Classical names that end with a /zәs/ or /eez/ sound take only the apostrophe: Aristophanes’ plays Jesus’ suffering Moses’ discovery Xerxes’ writings No extra syllable is added in sounding the possessive form. (3) If a corporate or similar name is formed from a plural word, it takes only the apostrophe. Hence General Motors makes General Motors’ , not ✳General Motors's —e.g.: “A merger by General Motors will excite great interest in an enforcement agency simply because of General Motors's [read ...

Euphemisms

Euphemisms   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...increased government spending) are commonly used by American politicians reluctant to call things by their more understandable names. In the mock-heroic style that was popular in the 19th century, euphemisms were quite common. Among some writers, the style persisted well into the 20th century. In the following sentence, for example, a judge uses an elaborate euphemism for the hymen: “[The statute] further says to the libertine, who would rob a virtuous maiden, under the age of 18 years, of the priceless and crowning jewel of maidenhood , that he does so at...

Pronouns

Pronouns   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,916 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...fee on our electric bills. Boiling it down, our city charges you and I [read me ] for the electric company to use our city easements.” “WT Should Be Appreciated,” Canyon News , 20 Aug. 1995 , at 4. (Consistency isn't always a virtue.) • “Choice is available to I [read me ], a member of Congress.” Senator Judd Gregg of New Hampshire, U.S. News Debate Series, PBS, 20 Oct. 1995 . • “As for we [read us ] poor slobs who were out of the loop—any loop—we did what Dallasites had always done: We took it on faith that the city was virtually...

Headlinese

Headlinese   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,623 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...fit the need for short forms, and well-known ones get plenty of use <State St. CEO: No Need for Fresh Capital> <EPA Weighs TVA's Duty in Cleanup> <FCC Fines 9 Cable Providers> . But editors rightly discourage or even ban the use of obscure initialisms as too reader-unfriendly <Host Agrees: ‘No Thanks’ to Gutted ESG> . Finally, the use of nouns as adjectives is fairly common in headlines <Massey Ltd. Seeks Canada Financial Aid> <Okinawa Case Pressed in Court> . In text, a writer would be better off using the adjectival forms Canadian and Okinawan ....

Sexism

Sexism   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,728 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...“Common sense is the victim of all this rhetoric.” “Lost in Space: Common Sense,” Time , 6 July 1992 , at 13. For other entries dealing with this and related issues, see chairman , foreman , humankind , male & ombudsman . D. Differentiated Feminine Forms. Several word endings mark feminine forms (as in authoress , comedienne , confidante , heroine , majorette , and tutrix ). As a whole, these are very much on the wane. For example, words ending in -ess , such as poetess and authoress , are mostly archaic in AmE. (BrE is more hospitable to...

Names

Names   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
3,961 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...name.” Llewellyn Miller , The Encyclopedia of Etiquette 393 ( 1967 ). Today, these first two rules are frequently ignored. Many men seem to become Jr . for life (e.g., William F. Buckley Jr. ). And some fathers do adopt Sr . Perhaps the niceties are lost as fewer and fewer sons are named after their fathers; the convention is certainly much rarer than it was in the early 20th century. In 2000 , the advice columnist Abigail Van Buren repeated the customary guidance about dropping Jr . on the father's death but added that “if you desire, there is...

Punctuation

Punctuation   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
7,703 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...one of four ways. (1) Some writers insert a comma before the verb—something that was once standard. But the practice has been out of fashion since the early 20th century, and today it's considered incorrect—e.g.: “Whether or not the shoes were bought at our store, [omit the comma] is not something we have yet been able to ascertain.”/ “Only if this were true, [omit the comma] could it be said that John F. Kennedy was a great president.” Even those who understand this principle are sometimes tempted to place a comma after a compound element that doesn't require...

Great Tradition, the

Great Tradition, the   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...Tradition, the This phrase, coined by the Dutch linguist Flor Aarts, refers to the European tradition of English grammar ( 2 ) writing. 1986 F. AARTS Ever since 1586 Dutch grammarians have been playing an interesting role in the history of English grammar. However, their reputation is chiefly based on a number of grammars written in the present [20th] century. These form part of what is sometimes referred to as ‘The Great Tradition’…a series of traditional grammars of English, written in England, Germany, the Scandinavian countries and the...

someplace

someplace   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
134 words

...someplace . 1 See any 2 ( f ) ; everyplace . 2 The adverb somewhere , i.e. the normal form in BrE, is still widely used in AmE (e.g. A television technician with a belt full of toys came out of the nave on his way somewhere—New Yorker , 1988 ). In AmE (rarely elsewhere) someplace surged into prominence in the second half of the 20c.: e.g. she can get a good job herself someplace and they can get married —L. Smith, 1983 ; If this discourse is not someplace in the culture, it is a rather tall order for us to try to invent it here—Dædalus , ...

helpmate

helpmate   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
196 words

...; helpmeet . Helpmeet , now archaic, was the original form, yet folk etymology changed the spelling to - mate , which is now the prevalent form. ( See etymology ( D ) .) In fact, helpmate is now nearly nine times more common than helpmeet . Here's the story behind the development of the words. Helpmeet is a compound “absurdly formed” (as the OED puts it) from the two words help and meet in Genesis: “an help meet for him” (Gen. 2:18, 20), in which meet is really an adjective meaning “suitable.” Some writers still use helpmeet —e.g.:...

asterisk (*)

asterisk (*)   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
187 words

...passage in a book or journal. 2 Especially in books written before the second half of the 20c., as a device to indicate omitted letters, particularly in coarse slang words, e.g. c**t, f**k . 3 In etymologies, placed before a word or form not actually found, but of which the existence is inferred, e.g. wander f. OE wandrian = MLG, MDu wanderen , etc., ← WGmc. * wandrōjan . 4 In modern linguistic writing, and in this book, placed before unacceptable forms or constructions that are cited to draw attention to what are the correct ones, as * childs ...

-ism and -ity

-ism and -ity   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
523 words

... agnosticism, atheism, Communism, realism ; ( e ) forming terms denoting a characteristic feature, esp. of language, e.g. Gallicism, Scotticism; ( f ) a pathological condition, e.g. alcoholism, Parkinsonism ; ( g ) in the second half of the 20c. forming ‘politically correct’ terms such as ableism (prejudice against disabled people by able-bodied people), speciesism (prejudice or discrimination of one species over another, esp. of the human species in the exploitation of animals): see politically correct . The suffix is so prevalent in English words...

remain

remain   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
236 words

...lost any dynamic quality and is acting as a kind of intensive form of be , as in the letter formulas discussed next. 2 I remain . As part of the concluding formula of a letter, I remain was in frequent use from about 1600 to some point in the 20c., but now is rarely encountered. Examples: I will ever remain Your assured friend Charles Percy ( 1600 ); I remain, my dear friend, Affectionately yours, WC. —Cowper, 1793 ; Here is my letter done, and I remaining yours always sincerely, E.F.G. —E. FitzGerald, 1873...

-er and -est, more and most

-er and -est, more and most   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,032 words

...also superlatives 2 . 6 Novel literary forms with -er and -est. As a stylistic device, it was once open to writers to extend the use of -er and -est to many adjectives of more than one syllable that normally take more and most . Historical examples (listed by Jespersen): easiliest, freelier, proudlier, wiselier (all from Shakespeare); finelier, harshlier, kindlier, proudlier (all from Lamb); darklier, gladlier, looselier, plainlier (all from Tennyson), and Lewis Carroll’s curiouser . From the 20c. onwards, formations such as admirablest,...

agenda

agenda   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
291 words

...plural agendae is occasionally encountered, but it is wrong.) The singular form agendum is extremely rare and technically means a single agenda item, e.g. I have never given the subject much investigation, but have left it as an agendum for some more convenient season —M. F. Maury, 1849 . Its use as a synonym of agenda has historical precedents but is unadvisable: presumably, it is based on the mistaken notion that because agenda is plural, a singular needs to be formed. Whatever the reasoning, it sounds exceptionally precious: e.g. It’s a...

criterion

criterion   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
344 words

... a singular—e.g.: “Grade your business from ‘A’ to ‘F’ on each criteria [read criterion ] (but with a numeric value where A=4.0 and C=2.0, etc.)” ( Ariz. Bus. Gaz. ). Cf. media & phenomenon . See plurals ( B ) . Criterion Misused as a Plural. Oddly, perhaps because criteria is so often wrongly thought to be a singular, the correct singular and plural forms have—in some writers' minds—done something of a role reversal. Thus, criterion is sometimes incorrectly used as a plural form—e.g.: “A state law adopted in 1959 outlines many ...

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