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Form 20-F

In the USA, the form required by the Securities and Exchange Commission for the filing of annual results by non-US companies.

-able

-able   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
777 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

..., extendible , and extensible . The first of these is now prevalent in AmE (though labeled obsolete in the OED ). Extensible was, through the mid-20th century, the most common form, but today it trails extendable by a substantial margin, while ✳extendible continues to appear infrequently. Writers and editors ought to settle on the most firmly established form— extendable , which is as well formed as the variants—and trouble their minds with weightier matters. See differentiation & mute e . B. Attaching -able to Nouns. This passive suffix is...

Hybrids

Hybrids   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
500 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... [Gk. tele- + OF preint ]), became quite common in the 20th century. In fact, they have existed for a very long time in English: grandfather (dating from the 15th century) has a French prefix and an English root; bicycle (dating from the mid-19th century) has a Latin prefix and a Greek root. One occasionally finds hybrids criticized in older literature—e.g.: • “ Ize and ist ‘are Greek terminations, and cannot properly be added to Anglo-Saxon words. Ist is the substantive form, ize the verbal.’ Jeopard ize is one of the monsters made by...

Comparatives and Superlatives

Comparatives and Superlatives   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
769 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as the greater of A [ and ? or ?] B . Logic would seem to demand and to include all the options in the comparison before one is singled out as being the lesser , biggest , oldest , latter , etc. But in fact, since the early 20th century or has been about ten times as common in print as and with this type of phrasing. F. Absolute Adjectives. See adjectives (b)...

Plurals

Plurals   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,782 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

..., at C4. F. Proper Names. Although few books on grammar mention the point, proper names often cause problems as plurals. The rule is simple: most take a simple -s , while those ending in -s , -x , or -z , or in a sibilant -ch or -sh , take -es . Thus: Singular Form Plural Form Adam Adams Adams Adamses Bush Bushes Church Churches Cox Coxes Flowers Flowerses Jones Joneses Levy Levys Lipschutz Lipschutzes Mary Marys Rabiej Rabiejs (the -j- is silent) Shapiro Shapiros Sinz Sinzes Thomas Thomases Plurals such as these are often erroneously formed by...

Possessives

Possessives   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,753 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of it is ( see its ). (2) Biblical and Classical names that end with a /zәs/ or /eez/ sound take only the apostrophe: Aristophanes’ plays Jesus’ suffering Moses’ discovery Xerxes’ writings No extra syllable is added in sounding the possessive form. (3) If a corporate or similar name is formed from a plural word, it takes only the apostrophe. Hence General Motors makes General Motors’ , not ✳General Motors's —e.g.: “A merger by General Motors will excite great interest in an enforcement agency simply because of General Motors's [read ...

Euphemisms

Euphemisms   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
975 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...increased government spending) are commonly used by American politicians reluctant to call things by their more understandable names. In the mock-heroic style that was popular in the 19th century, euphemisms were quite common. Among some writers, the style persisted well into the 20th century. In the following sentence, for example, a judge uses an elaborate euphemism for the hymen: “[The statute] further says to the libertine, who would rob a virtuous maiden, under the age of 18 years, of the priceless and crowning jewel of maidenhood , that he does so at...

Pronouns

Pronouns   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,916 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...fee on our electric bills. Boiling it down, our city charges you and I [read me ] for the electric company to use our city easements.” “WT Should Be Appreciated,” Canyon News , 20 Aug. 1995 , at 4. (Consistency isn't always a virtue.) • “Choice is available to I [read me ], a member of Congress.” Senator Judd Gregg of New Hampshire, U.S. News Debate Series, PBS, 20 Oct. 1995 . • “As for we [read us ] poor slobs who were out of the loop—any loop—we did what Dallasites had always done: We took it on faith that the city was virtually...

Headlinese

Headlinese   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,623 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...fit the need for short forms, and well-known ones get plenty of use <State St. CEO: No Need for Fresh Capital> <EPA Weighs TVA's Duty in Cleanup> <FCC Fines 9 Cable Providers> . But editors rightly discourage or even ban the use of obscure initialisms as too reader-unfriendly <Host Agrees: ‘No Thanks’ to Gutted ESG> . Finally, the use of nouns as adjectives is fairly common in headlines <Massey Ltd. Seeks Canada Financial Aid> <Okinawa Case Pressed in Court> . In text, a writer would be better off using the adjectival forms Canadian and Okinawan ....

Sexism

Sexism   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,728 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...“Common sense is the victim of all this rhetoric.” “Lost in Space: Common Sense,” Time , 6 July 1992 , at 13. For other entries dealing with this and related issues, see chairman , foreman , humankind , male & ombudsman . D. Differentiated Feminine Forms. Several word endings mark feminine forms (as in authoress , comedienne , confidante , heroine , majorette , and tutrix ). As a whole, these are very much on the wane. For example, words ending in -ess , such as poetess and authoress , are mostly archaic in AmE. (BrE is more hospitable to...

Names

Names   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
3,961 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...name.” Llewellyn Miller , The Encyclopedia of Etiquette 393 ( 1967 ). Today, these first two rules are frequently ignored. Many men seem to become Jr . for life (e.g., William F. Buckley Jr. ). And some fathers do adopt Sr . Perhaps the niceties are lost as fewer and fewer sons are named after their fathers; the convention is certainly much rarer than it was in the early 20th century. In 2000 , the advice columnist Abigail Van Buren repeated the customary guidance about dropping Jr . on the father's death but added that “if you desire, there is...

Punctuation

Punctuation   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
7,703 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...one of four ways. (1) Some writers insert a comma before the verb—something that was once standard. But the practice has been out of fashion since the early 20th century, and today it's considered incorrect—e.g.: “Whether or not the shoes were bought at our store, [omit the comma] is not something we have yet been able to ascertain.”/ “Only if this were true, [omit the comma] could it be said that John F. Kennedy was a great president.” Even those who understand this principle are sometimes tempted to place a comma after a compound element that doesn't require...

Great Tradition, the

Great Tradition, the   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...Tradition, the This phrase, coined by the Dutch linguist Flor Aarts, refers to the European tradition of English grammar ( 2 ) writing. 1986 F. AARTS Ever since 1586 Dutch grammarians have been playing an interesting role in the history of English grammar. However, their reputation is chiefly based on a number of grammars written in the present [20th] century. These form part of what is sometimes referred to as ‘The Great Tradition’…a series of traditional grammars of English, written in England, Germany, the Scandinavian countries and the...

Epideictic genre

Epideictic genre   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
4,507 words

...form of rhetoric that is more useful for city-states than one in which the orator is engaged in the recognition of virtues and vices, that is epideictic ( De partitione oratoria 20.69; also 21.70). while affirming that the pleasure of the audience is the goal of epideictic discourse, Quintilian still attests to its usefulness when he affirms that panegyric, an example of the speech of praise and blame, treats what is useful for Greece (3.4.14). [ See Panegyric .] Indeed, Isocrates' Panegyricus had treated the benefits of empire ( archē ) for Athens (4.20...

Occasion

Occasion   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,586 words

...now seem disinclined to solemnize formal occasions with the special composition of verse. [ See also Classical rhetoric ; Kairos ; and Sophists .] BIBLIOGRAPHY Bitzer, Lloyd F. “ The Rhetorical Situation. ” Philosophy and Rhetoric 1 (1968), pp. 1–14. A landmark essay, essentially positivistic in its approach, that set the terms for much subsequent discussion. Bitzer, Lloyd F. “Functional Communication: A Situational Perspective.” In Rhetoric in Transition: Studies in the Nature and Use of Rhetoric , edited by Eugene E. White , pp. 21–38. University...

Art

Art   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,767 words

...Reprint Ut Pictura Poesis. New York, 1967. Scholz, Bernhard F. “ Ekphrasis and Enargeia in Quintilian's Institutionis oratoriae libri xii .” In Rhetorica Movet. Studies in Historical and Modern Rhetoric in Honour of Heinrich F. Plett . Edited by Peter L. Oesterreich and Thomas O. Sloane , pp. 3–24. Leiden, 1999. Spencer, John R. “ Ut rhetorica pictura. A Study of Quattrocento Theory of Painting. ” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 20 (1957), pp. 26–44. — Bernhard F....

Style

Style   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
9,178 words

...in der englischen Renaissance. ” Renaissance-Rhetorik. Renaissance Rhetoric , edited by Heinrich F. Plett , pp. 225–243. Berlin, 1993. Müller, Wolfgang G. “ Das Problem des Stils in der Poetik der Renaissance. ” Renaissance-Poetik. Renaissance Poetics , edited by Heinrich F. Plett , pp. 133–146. Berlin, 1994. Müller, Wolfgang G. “ Die traditionelle Rhetorik und einige Stilkonzepte des 20. Jahrhunderts. ” Die Aktualität der Rhetorik , edited by Heinrich F. Plett , pp. 160–175. Munich, 1996. Müller, Wolfgang G. “ Stil. ” Historisches Wörterbuch der...

Stasis

Stasis   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
2,622 words

...in the rhetorical tradition of stasis in favor of methods claiming to produce uniquely correct interpretations of legal norms. This trend is signaled by works such as Chr. H. Eckhard's Hermeneuticae iuris libri duo ( 1750 ), A. F. J. Thibaut's Theorie der Auslegung des römischen Rechts (2d ed. 1806 ), and F. C. von Savigny's System des heutigen römischen Rechts (vol. 1, 1840 ). [ See Eighteenth-century rhetoric ; and Law .] Significantly, William Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England ( 1765–1769 ) are somewhat more...

Arrangement

Arrangement   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
7,188 words

...Marshall . The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man . Toronto, 1962. Argues for differences between linear and nonlinear media. Meyer, Bonnie J. F. The Organization of Prose and Its Effects on Memory . Amsterdam, 1975. A psycholinguistic approach to the hierarchical organization of information in a text. Pitkin, Willis . “ Discourse Blocs. ” College Composition and Communication 20 (1969), pp. 138–148. An attempt to define units of arrangement according to their discourse function (coordination, complementation, subordination,...

Music

Music   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
6,176 words

...In Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch 20 (1907). Neidhardt, Johann Georg . Sectio canonis harmonici . Königsberg, 1724. Nettesheim, Agrippa von . De vanitate et incertitudinae scientiarum . Cologne, 1532. Nucius, Johannes . Musices poeticae . Neisse, 1613. Quantz, Johann Joachim . Versuch einer Anweisung, die Flöte traversière zu spielen (Attempt at instruction to play the transverse flute). Berlin, 1752. Reckow, Fritz . “Processus und Structura: Concerning Tradition of Types and Understanding of Form in the Middle Ages.” In Musiktheorie 1...

Kairos

Kairos   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,001 words

...what presses the rhetor forward to speak but also what constitutes the value of speech. Second, kairos is figured temporally and tied to a Pythagorean conception of the universe modeled on the number seven, the number of Opportunity (Aristotle, Metaphysics 985b.30; 990a.20; 1078b.20). According to Rostagni ( 1922 ) and Untersteiner ( 1954 ), this worldview converges in Gorgias, the fifth-century bce rhetorician who possibly wrote a treatise entitled On the Right Moment in Time . As a master word, kairos is both the context and the guide for the...

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