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Form 20-F

In the USA, the form required by the Securities and Exchange Commission for the filing of annual results by non-US companies.

celery

celery  

Edible stems of Apium graveolens var. dulce. A 100‐g portion (two sticks) is a source of vitamin C; provides 2 g of dietary fibre; supplies 8 kcal (34 kJ). The seeds are used as a flavouring, and may ...
scuffing

scuffing   Reference library

Horst Dornbusch

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...F06%2F1981&_alid=1748752515&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_item&_cdi=5548&_sort=r&_st=13&_docanchor=&view=c&_ct=13&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=1f38e03a36af7a63d21e3917960cf4d7&searchtype=a (accessed October 15, 2010). On-Line Coating of Glass with Tin Oxide by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition . http://www.osti.gov/glass/Best%20Practices%20Documents/Other%20Case%20Studies/On-line%20coating%20of%20glass.pdf (accessed October 15, 2010). Process for forming tin oxide glass...

spun sugar

spun sugar   Reference library

Laura Mason

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...and 19th centuries, it was made into elaborate table decorations, spun into moulds shaped as vases, baskets, temples etc. This practice, largely discontinued, was revived towards the end of the 20th century, e.g. by trailing thin streams of caramel over an inverted mould to form a ‘net’ which can be used to cover ice creams, etc. ( Laura Mason...

Mohant

Mohant   Reference library

Petra Mohar Lorbeg and Andreja Čanžek Majhenič

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...evening milk. Curd formed by the addition of rennet is cut into small pieces and scalded. The curd is then drained, salted, and moved to wooden or plastic containers called deže , where it is covered with cheesecloth or plastic film and a wooden lid. Rocks or weights are used to press the covered cheese and attain a deoxygenated environment. Ripening takes place in three stages: (1) an initial cold ripening at a temperature of 54–61°F (12–16°C) for 15 to 20 days, followed by (2) a warm ripening at 66–73°F (19–23°C) for 15 to 20 days, completed by (3) a...

clarity

clarity   Reference library

Charles W. Bamforth

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Turbidity caused by living organisms is called “biological haze.” That due to non-living entities is called “non-biological haze.” If the haze is present under all conditions it is “permanent haze.” If the haze is present only when beer is chilled to 32°F (0°C) but not when the beer is warmed to 68°F (20°C), it is so-called chill haze. See chill haze . Beers that appear bright but which register a high haze reading (determined by instruments that measure light scattered at 90° to the incident) are said to display “invisible haze” (or “pseudo haze”)....

Willamette Valley hop region

Willamette Valley hop region   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...average high of 28°C (82°F), temperate winters with an average low of 1°C (34°F), and consistent rainfall throughout the fall, winter, and spring, but very light rainfall during the summer, when precipitations averages about 1 cm (0.5 in) per month. Total rainfall for the year averages about 100 cm (40 in). Although the climate in the Willamette Valley is ideally suited for hops cultivation, especially of delicate aroma varieties, many hop growers have implement some form of irrigation as a safety backup. The region produces almost 20% of all US hops, compared...

Sombor

Sombor   Reference library

Zorica Radulović and Jelena Miočinović

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...(15–20 percent of the total volume) and the washing of the cheese curd to prevent intense acid development. Blocks of cheese are usually dry-salted and put together in special wooden molds called kačica , where ripening takes place. During pressing, the molds are turned upside down, and the next day the upper part of the cheese is formed by mounding a mass of curd approximately 4–5 inches (10–15 centimeters) above the mold’s upper edge, forming a shape resembling a mushroom. The cheese is wrapped in cloth and left to ripen for one month at 59–68°F (15–20°C)...

Kalathaki Limnou

Kalathaki Limnou   Reference library

Maria Kazou, Efstathios Giaouris, and Konstantinos Papadimitriou

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...to 20 grams per 100 kilograms of milk) is allowed. Coagulation of the milk takes place at about 91–93°F (33–34°C). After coagulation, the curd is cut into particles the size of beans and left to drain for a while. For the final draining and acidification, the curd is then transferred to special cylindrical molds, which give the cheese its characteristic form. When draining is complete, the cheese is removed from the molds, salted, transferred to metal containers, and covered with brine. The cheese is matured in the containers at a temperature of about 57–64°F...

haze

haze   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...reason why many brewers use haze meters that measure light scatter at a narrower “forward” angle, under which circumstances the spurious scatter is not registered. Visible haze is differentiated into chill haze, which develops when beer is chilled to 32°F (0°C) but disappears when the beer warms to 68°F (20°C), and permanent haze, which is present at all temperatures. It is also differentiated into biological haze, which arises from the growth of living microorganisms in the beer, and non-biological haze, which is caused by a diversity of colloidally unstable...

colloidal haze

colloidal haze   Reference library

Keith Villa

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Haze in beer can be formed by either of two main factors: biological (bacteria and yeast) or non-biological agents. Non-biological haze can be amorphous (e.g., starch based) or colloidal. Colloidal systems refer to the presence of one substance suspended within another. Beer colloidal haze is generally the result of protein molecules within the beer joining with polyphenols to form molecules large enough to cause turbidity. Colloidal haze can be a chill haze that is present at 0°C (32°F), but solubilizes and disappears at 20°C (68°F), or it can be a...

temperature

temperature   Reference library

John Gladstones and A. Dinsmoor Webb

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
2,495 words

...for temperature’s effect on chemical reactions, a cellar temperature of 30 °C/86 °F should in theory mature a wine twice as fast as storage at 20 °C/68 °F—except that at such a high temperature compounds with a cooked or jammy note are formed and may well dominate the more desirable compounds. A cellar temperature of 10 °C/50 °F should in theory age wine at half the speed of a 20 °C cellar, which is to say very slowly, although not quite so slowly as a cellar kept at 0 °C/32 °F, which would also result in extremely high deposits of tartrates and phenolics ....

oxygen

oxygen   Reference library

Charles W Bamforth

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...(10.9 ppm) at 10 o C (50 o F) and 0.28 mM (8.9 ppm) at 20 o C (68 o F). In 15 o Plato wort the equivalent values are 8.0 and 6.6 ppm, respectively. For worts at lower atmospheric pressures (higher altitudes) the concentration of oxygen in wort will be proportionately less. At a given atmospheric pressure the solubility of oxygen in beer is less than in pure water, but greater than in wort. Ground-state oxygen can be dissociated into its constituent atoms by light energy, and in turn these can react with other oxygen molecules to form ozone, which is also more...

Bodegas

Bodegas   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...days a week. The Bodega Association of the United States was formed out of conversations that began in 1997 to address common problems, such as crime. By 2014 , the association had seven thousand members; it is headquartered in Washington Heights. According to the association, there are an estimated 16,500 bodegas in the city; 85 percent are owned by Latinos. Bodega Association of the United States . “New York City Bodega Owners Survey.” http://www.newgeography.com/files/Bodegas%20Survery%20%20Results.pdf . Krohn-Hansen, Christian . Making New York: Dominican...

Wagashi

Wagashi   Reference library

Rosario Petriglieri

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...Mauritania to Cameroon, numbering as many as 20 million. Wagashi cheese is made from cow’s milk. The men milk the animals and distribute milk to their wives who transform the surplus milk after consumption or sale. Wagashi is characterized by a very solid form of aggregation of all the proteins present in milk caused by an alkaloid present in the latex of Calotropis procera . Parts of this plant, such as leaves and stems, are dipped in warm milk for a few minutes. Then milk is heated on the fire to 190–194°F (88–90°C). At these temperatures the toxic...

adjuncts

adjuncts   Reference library

Charles W. Bamforth

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the mash with whatever starch was at hand; pumpkin was a particularly popular adjunct. Many Belgian and Belgian-style beers use a form of sucrose called “candi sugar,” which is often caramelized to add color and flavor to beers. See candi sugar . In particular, dark candi sugar, usually in the form of a heavy syrup, gives many dark Belgian-style beers distinctive raisin-like caramel flavors. These sugars, frequently used as up to 20% of extract, are highly fermentable and can help beers attain very low residual sugar profiles. Craft brewers use various sugars...

stuck fermentation

stuck fermentation   Reference library

Paul A. Henschke

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...culture, in the presence of adequate nutrients, including oxygen. Professor Paul A. Henschke Alexandre, H. , and Charpentier, C. , ‘Biochemical aspects of stuck and sluggish fermentation in grape must’, Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology , 20 (1998), 20−7. Bisson, L. F. , and Butzke, C. E. , ‘Diagnosis and rectification of stuck and sluggish fermentations’, American Journal of Enology and Viticulture , 51 (2000), 168−77. Henschke, P. A. , ‘Stuck fermentation: causes, prevention and cure’, in M. Allen , P. Leske , and G. Baldwin...

freezing

freezing   Reference library

Ralph Hancock

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,381 words

...to −5 °C (32 °F to 23 °F) in a few minutes, since this is when most ice crystals form. The less time they have to form, the smaller they will be and the less damage they will do to the cell structure of the food. The smaller the pieces of food, the faster they freeze. Several methods are currently used for items of different sizes. Air blast freezing is the most used technique. It freezes smallish objects, such as packets of frozen vegetables, quickly and uniformly. The food is frozen on refrigerated trays by a blast of chilled air at −12 °C (10 °F), after which...

draining

draining   Reference library

Jessica Sennett

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,138 words
Illustration(s):
1

...during the draining process to be flipped in their forms. This promotes even draining on both sides of the cheese body being formed. The temperature of the cheese make room, where the draining of cheese in forms and cloth bags is taking place, is crucial to maintaining a healthy draining rate. The temperature should be maintained between 68–72°F (20–22°C). If the curd itself is over 75°F (24°C) it must be handled with care, as the butterfat becomes liquid and can seep through the cheesecloth or form. If the room is too cold, whey expulsion will be...

Fisher, M. F. K.

Fisher, M. F. K. (1908–92)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...M. F. K. ( Mary Frances Kennedy ) ( 1908–92 ) one of the finest American writers of the 20th century, devoted a substantial amount of her writing to food and cookery and in doing so created a new genre, of which her own work remains the outstanding example. As Davidson ( 1988 c ) put it when introducing an essay she had written on the nature of people who ‘love to cook’: Among the famous writers on cookery in North America one stands apart, a star with her own share of the sky, a star whose luminosity differs in kind from all the others: this is M. F. K....

bacteria

bacteria   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,254 words

...conditions and stop (but again survive) when air is admitted. Certain types prefer particular temperatures. Thermophilic bacteria breed fastest between 42 °C (104 °F) and 75 °C (160 °F); mesophilic bacteria between 10 °C (50 °F) and 40 °C (104 °F); while psychrophilic bacteria, although they breed fastest between 150 °C (590 °F) and 20 °C (68 °F), can continue to breed right down to −5 °C (23 °F). One example of the way temperature favours different types of bacteria is the spoilage of unpasteurized milk. At room temperature, mesophilic bacteria turn milk...

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